Your Safety. Our ConcernIsha Padhy1 , R Sreedhar2 , C.V. Madhusudan Reddy3Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology1, Sridevi Engineering College2, Lords Institute of Engineering and Technology3Abstract:Accidents are un-intentional and unpredicted events which may lead to fatal conditions taking a precious life. This condition can be prevented if we can take certain steps which are accompanied with modern tools and technology. Here we have tried to take a small step towards this perspective. One of the main cause of the accidents is sudden appearance of an object may it be an animal, a unconscious human being or even a stationary vehicle.
Here we have tried to take action both in case of an object in a shorter distance or a longer distance. The proposed system(Accident detection and accident prevention ) ADAP uses ultrasonic sensors and Infrared sensors to detect an object straight and in its surrounding within 180D. The system can be mounted with the control system of the car.Keywords: IR Sensors, Ultrasonic Sensors, Relay, Arduino.1.
Introduction:In modern world, there is an exponential increase in automobile usage with corresponding increase in population. Consequently, the accident rates have also increased due to distinct reasons. The accident prevention module attached to this system gives safety to the vehicle. In this module, we have connected the ultrasonic sensors on all sides of the vehicle which sends the distance upon detection of any obstacle and, IR sensors readings that will take action on the brakes of the vehicle automatically.The required output from the system will be the data which is the approximate distance of the object from the vehicle from all sides, and a relay output generated by the IR sensors, connected to the front brakes of the car. The distance can be send to a serial output connected to a display device kept in-front of the driver, which also includes a voice saying the distance alert to the driver. Accordingly the driver can take action if the object distance is under his control. If the obstacle is much closer the IR sensors output will be send to relay which when in condition “1” puts ‘on’ the brakes.
2. Architectural design:2.1 Infrared Sensors: An infrared sensor is an electronic instrument which is used to sense certain characteristics of its surroundings by either emitting and/or detecting infrared radiation. Infrared sensors are also capable of measuring the heat being emitted by an object and detecting motion. A transmission medium is required for infrared transmission, which can be comprised of either a vacuum, the atmosphere or an optical fiber. An IR sensor consists of an emitter, detector and associated circuitry. The circuit required to make an IR sensor consists of two parts; the emitter circuit and the receiver circuit.
The IR sensors reading are connected to a LED which glows on detection of an obstacle.2.2 Ultrasonic Sensors:Ultrasonic Sensors are designed to detect solid or liquid targets by using sound waves. These compact sensors provide enhanced flexibility for areas with limited space and are excellent for standard packaging and assembly applications. They are idealfor sensing targets that are challenging for photoelectric sensors to detect, including clear, shiny, or non-reflective objects. These sensors play a vital role in accident detection system. The output of this sensor will be give us the distance of the object from the car.2.
3 Relay: Relays are switches that open and close circuits electromechanically or electronically. Relays are generally used to switch smaller currents in a control circuit and do not usually control power consuming devices except for small motors and Solenoids that draw low amps. Nonetheless, relays can “control” larger voltages and amperes by having an amplifying effect because a small voltage applied to a relays coil can result in a large voltage being switched by the contacts. Here relay is connected to output of IR sensor which when detects an obstacle transfers the signal to relay. The output can be visualized by a LED.3.
Work description:The Model detects any solid obstacle coming suddenly in-front of the vehicle. Depending on the distance of the obstacle automated or manual actions are taken. The distance of the obstacle can be received by using ultrasonic sensors that gets displayed on the serial output. The IR sensors can detect obstacle within a close distance, so the distance detection is not required in this case. We can have an automation in the braking system if the obstacle is very near. The distance can also give information whether the obstacle is moving or halting. This information also gives an idea whether there is a parked car, or hurdle etc.
When any object is detected, it sends signal to the relay which turns on the LED connected to it. We implemented our work using Arduino 184.108.40.206. Conclusion:The ADAP system can be utilized to prevent accidents to some extent.
After few years every vehicle will be equipped with different kind of sensors, so we felt this could help the automobile developers to some level. The IR sensors and the ultrasonic sensors are easily available products. The idea to incorporate them in the vehicles can be effective.5. Experimental resultSerial Monitor Readings:Distance 12No ProblemDistance 20Chance of Accident proven rangeDistance 30Chance of Accident proven range6. Future Work:Along with this work an intelligent detection system can also be incorporated to intimate ambulance and rescue services upon accidents along with the exact location of occurrence of accident to render immediate aid to the drivers and for the passengers. Thus, this system will provide safety and precautionary measures which can be implemented on vehicles in highways for reducing fatality rate.References1 Prof.
Chethana Gosal.et.al. “Intelligent AutomaticVehicle Accident Detection and Prevention System”,Int. Journal of Engineering Research and ApplicationISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 7, Issue 7, ( Part -2) July2017.
2 Asmita H, Jathin Sreenivas, Nandini S Kannan,Saritha, “Accident Avoidance and Detection”,IJLTEMAS, Volume V, Issue V, May 2016.3 R.Priyanga, D.Rajesh Kumar , E.
J.Yamini.”Sensor Based Accident Detection and PreventionTechnology”, International Journal of AdvancedTechnology in Engineering and Science ,VolumeNo.02, Issue No. 11, November 2014.4 C.Prabha, R.Sunitha, R.Anitha , “Automaticvehicle accident detection and messaging systemusing GSM, GPS Modem”, International Journal ofAdvanced Research in Electrical, Electronics andInstrumentation Engineering.Working Model: