William up later on the novel, when Jack uses

     William Golding constantly explores the issues of civilization against savagery using symbols in the novel, Lord of the Flies. He hides messages in these items and shows its effect on the island. The boys who get suck on the island find many elements that symbolize powerful ideas. Using symbols such as the pig’s head, the conch, and the fire. Golding demonstrates that humans, when isolated from society’s rules, allow their natural capacity for evil to overpower the civilization inside them. The author shows also how the boys savagery is overpowering their civilized state when one of the boys create the symbol of a pig’s head on a stick. The pig’s head was brung up later on the novel, when Jack uses it as a gift for “the beast”. Goldings description of the slaughtered pig head is very frightening showing its evil. The head is depicted as “dim-eyed, grinning faintly, and blood blackening between its teeth” (Golding 137). As the head is describe the reader can see its great evil and darkness presented on the island. When Simon sees the pig, and starts to converse with it, the wickedness is also revealed. As Simon continues to hallucinate, he still talks to the pig’s head learning that “the beast” on the island is false. The head of the dark pig tells him, “fancy thinking the beast was something you could hunt and kill! You knew didn’t you? I’m part of you” (Golding 143). Simon knowing this, runs back to the others to tell them but, then dies. The boys murdered Simon due to the fact of savagery build up inside them. The evil contained in the pig’s head is causing the boys society on the island to decline. Golding shows how savagery and evil can overpower civilization by being isolated from the real world. This causes the life on the island to deteriorate.Another powerful symbol in the novel is the conch shell, and it symbolizes authority and civilization. The conch’s symbolization of order and authority is frequently shown by its use in calling meetings and as a talking stick, where only the boy holding the conch can be speaking. The book first shows the symbol of order when the group of boys try to figure out who should be the leader. The littluns, who are the youngest boys on the island, decided to yell out “him with the shell. Ralph! Ralph! Let him be chief with the trumpet-thing”(Golding 22). The littluns early on recognize the conch as a symbol of power, just as the reader realizes the conch is being used as a symbol of power. As the novel progresses, the conch’s physical appearance changes and shows the boy’s losing authority and civilization in their social structure they created on the island. When the boys first found the shell, it was described as “deep cream, touched here and there with fading pink” (Golding 16). The conch keeps its natural color, just as the boys still have their civil and order. Towards the ending, the boys continue to fall deeper into savagery and find themselves falling apart from order and authority, especially as Jack begins to create conflict with Ralph and pull away from the group. This is the part when the conch is beginning to lose its color and power on the island. At the end of the novel, the conch becomes more fragile and there is little to no order and authority left among the boys anymore. As the death of Piggy comes he holds the shell trying to protect it and then Roger sends down a boulder to him causing him to die and the beloved shell to explode “into a thousand of white fragments” (Golding 181). The once known order and power on the island is lost and the boys have turned into complete savages. The shell that was held so high throughout the book is destroyed, as well as the social order the boys had left.  The civilization and control, in the form of the conch, are over and the boys have lost all civilization, turning to their savage instincts. As the novel progresses, the characters come up with the idea to start a fire which symbolizes their idea of hope.  The idea of hope comes from the boys wanting to be rescued.  The fire is not only a symbol hope, but it also helps keep the boys alive as it provides warmth, light to keep the darkness away, and a source to cook their food. Over the course of the novel, the symbolism of the fire changes. When the boys are first stranded on the island, their hopes of being rescued are high, especially because Ralph tells the boys that “of course they will be rescued” (Golding 37). Immediately after these remarks, the boys begin to build the fire on the mountain top, because they think they will get rescue right away. As the boys’ stay longer on the island they begin to lose hope that they will get rescued. As the fire starts to lose its importance Ralph gets frustrated with the boys and yells at them to “go make smoke up there on the mountain or die” (Golding 81) because if not they will lose all their connections to civilization. The boys must keep the fire going to stay connected to the civilized world and hope of getting rescued. As the novel continues, some boys still have a little hope remaining and try to keep the fire burning, but the other boys have become savages and want no part of the civilized world. At the end of the novel, the boys struggle to keep the signal fire going and it always dimmers as the boys fall deep into savages. Ironically, at the end the fire that the boys thought was a waste of time helped bring the navy to the island rescuing them.Golding’s instinct to use key symbols to describe the boy’s loss of innocence by being deprived from the real world created a new insight on society. The three key symbols he created are the powerful conch shell, the fire that is a source of hope, and the pig’s head which shows the evil brung out in the boys. By including so many key symbols in his novel, Golding adds depth and shows a form of the island that is a source of the boys evil they inherited. With his symbols, Golding was able to write a novel that expressed his views of society being corrupt and without order, civilization would cease to exist and would be overpowered by savagery.