Why Do Women Smoke
Dr. Jeral Kirwan
January 18th, 2018
Smoking is an unhealthy habit to those who smoke and to those around them. It has been known that women smoke, in order, to keep their weight under control. Women are finding it more difficult to quit because of the pressures from society on having the perfect weight. Women feel that smoking is an effective way to keep their weight down. Women worry about weight gain when they go to quit or quit smoking. Women do have a more challenging time quitting smoking than men according to Nair, Collins, & Napolitano (2013, p.1). That is because women have more dissatisfaction with their bodies. There are many benefits to quitting smoking. Many of these benefits help body weight and image. After quitting, it has been thought that physical activity will help ease the urge to smoke and keep women from gaining weight. This paper will discuss what the authors of “Differential effects of a body image exposure session on smoking urge between physically active and sedentary female smokers (Nair, Collins, & Napolitano, 2013),” are trying to determine, their hypothesis, and what tests help prove this hypothesis. In this paper I will also include any variables that would be beneficial to this study. Women may see smoking as the miracle weight loss drug, but women need to know they can quit smoking and maintain a healthy/positive body image.
The researcher’s of this study assessed the “effects of physical activity versus sedentary behavior on smoking urge response following a body image challenge with weight-concerned female smokers ages 18-24 who varied in physical activity” (Nair, Collins, & Napolitano, 2013 p. 2). The researchers also wanted to link the relationship between physical activity and smoking. They are asking the general questions of why women believe smoking will help to keep their body weight and will exercise help to control the urge to smoke (if so, how long of a session).
This study consisted of “37 women that were reporting high-smoking related weight concerns” (Nair, Collins, & Napolitano, 2013 p. 2). The participants needed to meet the standard five cigarettes a day habit for the past six months. These women also needed not to have a diagnosis from the Axis I disorders (Nair, Collins, & Napolitano, 2013 p. 2). The females were placed in placed in two separate categories based on the results from the Godin’s leisure-time physical activity questioner (Nair, Collins, & Napolitano, 2013 p. 2). One category is physically active (PA) and the second is sedentary (SE). The women did not smoke two hours before the study. That allowed the results of the CO2 to be consistent throughout the study (Nair, Collins, & Napolitano, 2013 p. 2). When the women first arrived, they were exposed to the body image exposure portion of the study. From that activity, a baseline was assessed. The women in this study were then used to help prove that after the body image manipulation, sedentary smokers would demonstrate greater self-reported urge to smoke and a shorter latency to first puff on a posttest cigarette compared with physically active smokers (Nair, Collins, & Napolitano, 2013 p. 2).
The measurements used in this study included the “Questioner for Smoking urges for self-reported urges, and the CReSS was used to measure the latency to the first puff” (Nair, Collins, & Napolitano, 2013 p. 2). Participants also reported how often they worked out and the intensity of the workout. The three levels were strenuous/vigorous activity, moderate activity, and mild activity. Their body and weight concerns were measured using the “Body Image States Scale” (BISS), and their anxiety was measured using the “Physical Appearance State-Trait Anxiety States-Scale Version (PASTAS)” (Nair, Collins, & Napolitano, 2013 p. 3). During the body and weight measurements, the participants also had the body mass index (BMI) measured. “The nicotine withdrawals were measured by the Withdrawal Symptoms Check List” (Nair, Collins, & Napolitano, 2013 p. 3). A nicotine dependence questioner, and motivation to smoke questioner was also used for measuring. The sample t-test was also used to compare pre-and posttest urges in both groups (Nair, Collins, & Napolitano, 2013 p.3). From these measurements, we can see the characteristics of each group in more detail. We can see the mean of the two groups in different categories and the standard deviation in the different categories. That allows us to see that mild or moderate activity decreases the urge to smoke but, vigorous physical activity helped to alleviate the urge to smoke more in both groups of women (Nair, Collins, & Napolitano, 2013 p. 4). It also shows that longer vigorous workouts can help fight the urge to smoke at a better rate. If the women with body image issues continue to exercise daily, this will allow them to kick the habit and keep the weight off. I believe that the variables were met in this study. The study used a sample t-test which means that the means from both groups of the study were compared to see if there is a significant difference within the population. The data in this study was pulled from a small population.
Smoking is a hard habit to break. The researchers of this study wanted to prove how vigorous physical activity will decrease the urge to smoke, but also help maintain a positive weight after quitting. The researchers considered many different variables in this study. Many women still rely on the fact that they cannot quit smoking because they will gain weight and do not feel that working out will lower urges to smoke. If women continue to use the excuse that they cannot quit because they’re afraid to gain weight, they better be prepared for worse effects on their body. Women can quit the urge to smoke and maintain a healthy weight/body image by participating in physical activity.
Nair, U. S., Collins, B. N., & Napolitano, M. A. (2013). Differential effects of a body image exposure session on smoking urge between physically active and sedentary female smokers. Psychology Of Addictive Behaviors, 27(1), 322-327. doi:10.1037/a0031367 Retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu
Tanner, D. (2016). Statistics for the Behavioral & Social Sciences (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu