What comes up to your mind when you hear the wordAvant-Garde? Avant-garde is basically a French term, meaning in English modernart which started in the beginning of 1850s. In the beginning of the nineteenthcentury, it seemed with reference to art in France and was attributed to thesignificant theorist Henri de Saint-Simon, one of the founders of socialism. Atthe very end of the modern period, several types of Avant-garde art appearedsuch as contemporary art movements. In another way, being avant-garde needs toexplore new artistic methods, or try-out new approaches to have the ability toproduce better art. In addition, Avant-garde has a lot of other movements suchas cubism, futurism, Neo-Plasticism or surrealism which have had strongprograms, but will further be described in detail about the differences andsimilarities of Neo-Plasticism and Futurism. Even though both movements came inthe same century; however, Futurism came before Neo-Plasticism and was notfounded from the same origin.
Futurism andNeo-Plasticism period have been selected to exhibit how two art movements canhave comparisons yet still hold true to their own values, thoughts, andprinciples to produce a decisive style. Futurism is an avant-garde movementfounded in Milan in 1909 by the poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti as also it wasan artistic and social movement that highlighted speed, technology, youth andviolence, and objects such as cars, airplane, and the industrial city. WorldWar 1 had been a dominant factor of Futurism’s imaginary since Marinetti hadlaunched the movement at that time it appeared on the first page of Le Figaroin Paris. Futurism ended in 1915-16 but still, artists nowadays get influencedby how art, violence, and machines are connected together to form an artworkbecause they represented the technological triumph of man over nature. Futurismdid not directly recognize its unique style and workedin borrowing elements from various technical characteristics of Post-Impressionism, which include Symbolism and Divisionismand more into Divisionism. It was complicated as it divided light and coloursinto painted dots and stripes, and cracking the canvas plane into sections, atthe beginning was taken as an example from Severini and other artists. Not onlyBoccioni’s encounter with Cubist painting had an important influence, but alsoNeo-Plasticism was one of the related art movements to cubism as they cameafter each other.
Futurism’s main subject is modern urban scenes which expressenergy, so it was something at that time. ‘We Futurists are trying withthe power of intuition, to place ourselves at the very center of things, insuch a way that our ego forms with their own uniqueness a single complex. Wegive plastic planes a plastic expansion in space, obtaining this feeling ofsomething in perpetual motion which is peculiar to everything living’- CarloCarra.
The Futurists discovered every medium of art, including painting, sculpture,poetry, theatre, music, architecture and even gastronomy. AlessandroBruschetti was an Italian Futurist artist who was inspired by the World War andis shown in his artwork. It is obvious how Alessandro used portraits of soldersand airplanes with other machinery equipment to send a message that the WorldWar had a big impact on many artists throughout the years and this period oftime. Why did I choose this artwork specifically? Because it stand out for theperfect meaning of the art movement Futurism and it describes how Cubism hadinfluenced it. In addition, it has some similarities relating to Neo-Plasticismsuch as similar colours, the inspiration of Cubism and the World War 1 as longas it came after it and was in the same century. However, Futurists madeartwork which was inspiring until Marinetti’s death in 1944, later artmovements such as Art Deco, Vorticisn, Constructivism, Surrealism, Dadaism andmuch later Neo-Futurism were severely influenced by the work of the Futurists.
AreMarinetti’s thoughts still existent? Yes in the Japanese culture and theirmangas and anime, but with new development such as speed was chosen in order tocreate new forms of theatre in 1988 and after that Futurism started to bedestroyed ever since the death of its leader Marinetti.Which artists limit their selves by two or three colours? Aretheir paintings with squares and straight lines? Yes, Neo-Plasticism isa term approved by the Dutch inventor of abstract art developed by PietMondrian, for his own type of abstract painting which used geometric forms inblack, white, grey, and primary colours. Relatively it was against thedecorative excesses of Art Deco. The main painters are Theo van Doesburg andPiet Mondrian which applied their style to a host of media in the fine andapplied arts and beyond. Neo-Plasticismis basically “the style” in Dutch, emerged largely in response to thefears of World War I.
The goal of Neo-Plasticism art movement is to make artsimple and basic as possible and that was the only reason. Artists wanted to filterart to be almost scientific precision and perfection. In addition, arrangement and balance made a great part in artist’s artwork, and this lead to moredominant in the next few decades of modern design and modern architecture.It was different from one artist to the other for example Theo van Doesburgused in his work diagonals and the colour green which was not common with PietMondrian as he was the leading painter of the group; nevertheless: other artistsin the group used a combination between Theo van Doesburg and Piet Mondrian’swork.
This art movement in the beginning was name as De Stijl and then Piet realized that it makes moresense as Neo comes from New and Plasticism refers to form making the wordNeo-Plasticism. Despite the fact that Piet Mondrian was a fan of Kandinsky’swriting, he disagreed about the variety of elements an abstract painter shoulduse.