What is Motivation:
Motivation is the sum of the efforts
made to move one or more people into a constant aim or purpose. Motivation has
settled into our language, that is, the power that drives it. The impulse is
the desire of people to act and to determine the directions of their movements,
their beliefs, hopes and beliefs in brief; needs and fears. Motivation is the
process of encouraging employees to work and convince them that they will best
satisfy their personal needs if they work efficiently in the organization. In
short, motivation is the power that drives a person to act for a specific
The Importance of Motivation:
The concept of motivation is very important in terms of businesses. Because increasing the efficiency of the staff requires investigating the factors that encourage them, and the most important of these factors is the motivation that warns the need of the staff. Indeed, in spite of high satisfaction, the inability of most of the staff to be productive in the enterprises is due to the fact that the guiding methods are not faulty but the guiding principles are misdiagnosed. Motivation has a lot to offer, but the three most important are:- Executive Descriptions- In terms of employees- Family and Friends Circle Executive Description: The motivation theme is essentially; It concerns the expectations and needs of the people, their purpose, their behaviors, giving information about their performances. Therefore, in order to fully understand the motivation process, it is necessary to investigate such factors as the reasons that force people to behave in certain ways, the aims of the person, and the possibilities of maintaining their behavior. The manager must be aware of the importance of understanding motivation and human needs, and the fact that organizational goals can only be achieved with employees.The manager should not be mistaken for thinking that everyone is motivated by the same incentives and incentives. Older management thinks that the majority of employees do not like work, and they believe employees can only be motivated by fear or monetary rewards. They can provide motivation in the short run, but they get tired of the workers in the long run. Motivation is a process to eliminate a wide range of human needs. The manager must be aware of these needs, be able to analyze their behavior, and be aware that they are not similar to all people. The basic thing that administrators should actually keep in mind is that every behavior has a reason. For this reason, some movements should not be regarded as stupid. The main instincts that must be found in the managers:• Competitive Motivation• Motivation for success• Status Judge In Terms Of Employees: Knowing what people are motivated requires understanding the translators, their movements, their behavior, making this person observe and make their surroundings clear. People who know each other better solve the problems between them, which can establish better relationships with colleagues and managers. Instinct that must be found both in employees and in managers:• Socialization Motivation• Security motivation Family and Friend Circle: In marriage, around friends, as a parent, knowing the motivation concept is very useful in establishing healthy relationships and living in harmony. All behaviors are the cause and trying to understand, concentrating on these causes helps to anticipate, prevent or solve the problems that may arise in various situations. Benefits of Motivation: A rational motivational system must be based on the principles of psychology and social science. In this case, the system has benefits for employees and business. – It will provide the opportunity to meet the basic economic needs of employees.- Prepare an opportunity to meet the social needs of employees (cultural, working hours, social security, family benefits, etc.).- will lead to the satisfaction of employees’ “ego” (meeting opportunities, consultation opportunities, opportunities to participate in decisions, etc.).- It will provide an opportunity to investigate measures to improve the skills of employees.- It will allow enterprises to enter into a competition environment aimed at improving the productivity of employees, social and economic welfare conditions.- It will lay the ground for the emergence of individual creativity and leadership skills.- It will improve the people-to-people positive competition by directing the employees to more injury than the motivation opportunities provided.- According to changing economic, social and technological conditions, businesses will be forced to accept “flexible motivation” systems.- Motivation aims to increase productivity while operating and, on the other hand, increase the satisfaction that employees expect from operating. Theories of Motivation 1-) Herzberg’s Dual Factor Theory: This theory emerges as a result of Herzberg’s research into the question “When did you feel best and when did you feel worst at your job?” According to research data; those who emphasize the concepts of success and responsibility that are directly related to the business seem to feel good but those who emphasize the concepts of wage and working conditions that are not directly related to the business are seem to feel bad. The concepts are categorized as: The first group is motivating factors. These are ; responsibility, status, promotion etc. . They are motivated by the fact that they are the factors that connect the person to the workplace more and make the person feel success. They can not be motivated by the fact that they are never or are missing.
The second group is hygiene factors. Salary, working conditions, business
relations, organizational policies and control are factors. These are allowed
to create the necessary environment for motivating the person to motivate. They
do not have motivational features by themselves. Motivation can only be
achieved with motivating factors. According to Herzberg, the motivational
factors that connect the person to the workplace and the hygienic factors that
push the person to pessimism must be well separated. They do not cause
dissatisfaction because they create a neutral environment with their absence
and lack of certain parts. Others, while motivated, feel bad with their
absence. For Example; the sewerage systems of cities can not improve human
health but it is one of the basic conditions of human health. Absence creates a
favorable environment for diseases. In the same way hygienic factors will not
motivate the staff, they will only prevent dissatisfaction, but the absences
will remove the motivation.
2-) Mc Clelland’s Theory of Need
for Success: Theoretician
McClelland; unlike other theories, argues that needs can be earned later by
learning. According to this, one behaves under the influence of three needs.
These; are the needs that take important places in both individual and
• Need to establish a relationship
• Need to gain power
• Need for achievement
According to the need for commitment,
human beings are of social character. People have friendship groups and
friendship relationships at various levels within a group. This quality changes
from people to people. People who have this motive wants to take
responsibility, they go for a reason, they go into hard work.
The need for empowerment stems from
the desire to dominate the environment. People use all the methods to increase
their influence in their environment. Those who have this motive compete for
power. According to McClelland, the need that most affects people and society
is the need for success. People who want to be successful are afraid to fail at
the same time. Because of this fear, he may be far from being able to handle
the actions that would lead him to success. However, if this fear can be
overcome, people can be directed. The characteristics of people who turn to
• Individuality is not the prizes but
the personal taste of success.
• A person who wants to be successful
• People who want to be successful
tend to realistic goals.
• It needs rewards to evaluate its
success, even if it is not directed.
In order to make people successful, it
is necessary to remove them from the causes that cause failure.
• Identify realistic and non-excessive
• Promoting people by setting limits
on duties, powers, and responsibilities to keep uncertainties in the air.
• Developing a prize and promotion
system based on performance evaluation.
The key to success in terms of
motivation is the removal of the fear that keeps the person from moving, and
the self-reliance can be given. After that, the person will go into action.
Believing managers should develop a system that will determine the needs of the
staff and place them on the job according to their needs. Thus, people will use
their performance fully because they will find the necessary environment for
3-) The Waiting Theory Developed
by Lawler and Porter: Lawler and
Porter say that high effort does not always lead to high performance.
Accordingly, the person who strives to achieve the desired performance must
have sufficient knowledge and skills. For Example; a person who does not have
accounting knowledge will not be able to make daily journal entries that show
how hard he shows. Another concept that this theory brings in addition is the
role that the person perceives for himself. The concept of role can be
expressed as expected behavior types. What is important for motivation is that
people have an appropriate role in the organization and can perceive their
roles in order to be able to show performance. Otherwise, role conflicts can be
seen, and at the end of the day people’s performances are hindered. The
demonstrated performance is rewarded due to effort, knowledge and perceived
role. The prize refers to the prize as the primary end result. People compare
their performances with others’ performances, and they come up with a
conviction about the prize that they have to pay for their performances. When
they see inequality in perception, the satisfaction grades will be affected and
the motivation process will start again because the wait will change. It should
not be forgotten; people can evaluate others rather than their awards and give
different values ??to the awards. Therefore, people should be trained according
to the expected performance and role conflicts should be reduced and the
motivation process should be conducted by studying the reward-performance