What amount of gray matter in the brain, the

What do you think identifies intelligence and what is it related
to? Intelligence is the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills, it
is multifactorial that can be determined by a multiple of factors. As IQ is
proportional to cognition and experience of a person, many researchers found it
hard to find an optimum definition for intelligence. It is influenced by a
variety of environmental factors including the quality of education, social and
parental stability and nutrition. Although heredity plays a huge role in affecting
intelligence due to the variety of IQ between people.

Despite the influence of environment, genes
are another aspect to consider in this theme. As mentioned in the article “Factors
influencing intelligence quotient” written by Arun Ommen:

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“Our brain structure and
functionality -contribute to our level of intelligence. Specific features that
may affect IQ include the size and shape of the frontal lobes, the amount of
blood and chemical activity in the frontal lobes, the total amount of gray matter
in the brain, the overall thickness of the cortex and the glucose metabolic
rate. Well-functioning pathways correlate to better brain functioning, brain
efficiency and information processing, which all point to better IQ scores”. (3)

In addition, it has been proved that
identical twins who are monozygotic tend to have very similar IQs than
fraternal twins who are dizygotic which means that intelligence somehow depends
on heredity. Although it only depends by 50% because the other 50% are
environmental factors. In reference to adoption studies which compare children
with their biological parents and adoptive parents have shown that in most
cases children share their IQs in the range of the IQs of their adoptive


In longitudinal studies that link both intelligence and education
with respect to time, there is a reinforced connection between both of them;
where education manipulates the IQ of a person. In London, a school witnessed a
significant increase in GCSE grades between 2002 and 2013 by 50% as a result of
exploitations and the series focusing in the educational basis; knowing the
real effect of education in the development of brains. Furthermore, a study of
127,000 people attempt to seek out the gene that makes that IQ difference in
education and it was found that it is responsible for 0.02% difference in
educational diversity which is insignificant enough, and to eliminate the
geographical location element, a research found that the Chinese and the
Japanese have a greater IQ than Americans and after searching for the reason,
it was revealed that students in asian countries spend more time in school, however,
their parents and teachers tend to motivate them academically which saves them
from the pressure and stress caused by studying.

Eric Kandel, Noble Prize winner, discovered that the brain is becoming
more and more advanced with time; increasing connections between neurons, so
the capacity of the grey matter expands as the person learns new information
and works on his skills, this is called neuro-plasticity. Therefore, education
positively affects the IQ, but how? Not only does education implant the
behavior of thinking, but it provides strategies for thinking in particular
problem domains as well; this leads to the increase of the sense of capacity to
interact with harder problems. As a result, the brain’s perception expands
increasing the average intelligence of a person.




The environment that surrounds you also plays a huge and effective role
in this procedure; where the way you get reared and the style you are used to
living in creates specific beliefs in the mind which limit your thinking
techniques and so it contributes in the IQ diversity. This could be proved
easily by the “Identical Twins” experiment, where twins raised together are
more similar in IQ than twins raised apart, moreover, as mentioned earlier
about the Adoption studies which demonstrate that adopted children have the
same IQ as their adoptive parents. There are two types of environments in which
a person can grow up in; the enriched and the deprived. The deprived environment
is an environment with a few resources, less parental assistance, less privacy
for studying, and less motivation and support to excel intellectually, whereas the
enriched environment is completely the opposite. It is found that changing from
a deprived to an enriched environment increases the IQ with respect to time and
that is called “Flynn Effect”; this occurs due to the diminished spread of
malnutrition, smaller families who are socially and parentally stable,  doing the best they can do in taking very good
care of their kids and supporting them financially and emotionally to make sure
that they excel and succeed in life , and the presence of televisions and video
games that enhance the brain skills and abilities.(Flynn,1987,1994)

As we are mentioning the environmental factors, nutrition should
top the list; as it is one of the main aspects of the environmental basis.
Brain makeup, attitudes, and intelligence are impacted by prenatal and
premature nutrition as it aids in diminishing the brain size wastage. In
addition, zinc, Fe, folate, iodine, B12, and protein insufficiency results in a
deficiency in the quantity of grey and white matter lowering the IQ the same
way the lack of breast milk that is fed to the children does, as it contributes
in the complete development of the baby’s body and parts, especially the brain
which has a very positive effect on his cognitive progress.(Arun Oommen,2014)

 “It is a huge leap to say,
based on this study, that taking creatine will help people perform better on
tests” says Stephan W. Scheff on the effect of creatine supplements in
improving the intelligence of a human. Although creatine supplements may have
side effects, it evolves the  brain’s efficiency;
where it links to phosphate creating phosphocreatine which buffer the ATP
making 12 more times than the default method using the phosphate reserves from
phosphocreatine, and when we think, brain uses the phosphocreatine instead of
ATP; keeping our thinking sharp. (Emily Deans M.D,2012)

Education, nutrition and social and parental stability are mainly
the factors that intelligence depends on although heredity plays a huge role
too. It is somehow obvious that if you work hard on your cognitive skills and
your ability at gathering new information, making sure you eat well and
maintaining your nutrition and health, and finally living in an enriched
environment, I can vouch for you that you’ll notice an increase in your IQ.