v quality of life, avoid lasting environmental demand, consider

v

 

Thus, sustainable tourism is nowadays environmentally needed. To answer
to coast degradation, pollution, and water supply problematics, policy making
plays a crucial role, at different levels. This part aim to analyze the
different policies involved to implement sustainable tourism in coast
degradation, pollution and water supply in Mallorca and to what extend there
are efficient. The role of European and Spanish policies have be
considered  to understand Mallorca policy
making. Whereas Europe triggered the first policies about sustainable
development, the micro political application in Mallorca is more efficient to
achieve a sustainable tourism.

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The triggering role of EuropeJA1  JA2 (328)

Europe played a triggering
role to implement sustainable development in the beginning of 1980’s (Pridham, 2007).
Europe’s awareness about quality of the environment for the tourists started in
1990’s, as tourism was becoming popular (Pridham, 2007). In 1992, the council
of minister decided to create a EU level policy to strengthen tourism (Pridham,
2007). For instance, the Fifth Environmental Action Programme of 1992, also know
under the name of “Toward Sustainability”, where tourism was one of the five
target, aimed to “maintain the overall quality of life, avoid lasting environmental
demand, consider as sustainable a development which meets the needs of the
present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their
own needs” (“Towards
Sustainability”, 1992).  JA3 

However, the policy
efficiency has to be nuanced. If Europe did some actions and started to
integrate tourism and sustainable tourism in its concerns, its role was really
limited and partially efficient. Thus, Europe failed to really impose its
policies to the countries, because they were no rule who was providing to
Europe full power about tourism policies (Pridham, 2007).  Second, the scale of environment sub sector related
to tourism was increasing. For instance, it was difficult for Europe to
implement a rule about coast beach degradation, as all of the countries were
not similarly affected. It’s difficult for Europe to have “one” policy when
tourism is so multi-dimensional (Pridham, 2007).

If the policies were far to
be perfect, they had the merit to bring the international legitimacy of
sustainable development.  The European
policies played more a triggering role rather than a decisive role in the sustainable
tourism policies in Mallorca, and pushed Spain to increase its own policy in
the beginning of 1990.

 

Spain Policies – (170)JA4 

 

The interest of Spain for
sustainable tourism start around 1990 (Pridham, 2007). Due to the pression of
the European institutions, and the destruction of many coastal placesJA5 , the increase of the pollution and the problematic of the water supply,
Spain’s answer was pragmatic rather than driven as such by the ideology of
sustainable tourism. In general, the policies had a more strategic approach to
link environment and tourism and strengthened effort to control and limit the
worth effect of tourism, and aimed to develop alternatives forms of tourism. The
particularity of the Spanish sustainable tourism policies is their micro
political application. There are directly created and implemented by the region
or the municipality, rather than at the governmental level (Pridham, 2007).
Thus, the Mallorca policies were able to target the main problem of beach
degradation, pollution and water supply.

 The Mallorca policies have been generally a
success to make Mallorca a sustainable place. The aim of this part is to
outlines the motivations behind establishing a sustainable tourism policy, the
process and success in Mallorca from the 1990’s to nowadays. Theses series of
legislative acts were efficient because there were specifics and implemented by
the Balearic Autonomous Community. Because it was at a small scale, the
authorities were really concern about the needs of Mallorca, and able to make
sur that the policies were applied. Sustainable
tourism as whole start to be implement after the Summit in Rio of 1992 (Summit,1992).
This international summit about sustainable tourism lent to the creation of
Agenda 21 – a framework for the sustainable action of the 21th century (Summit,1992).
Following this model, each territory can develop its own Agenda 21; the Local
Agenda 21. This is what the territory of Mallorca implemented in his territory,
on the tourism aspect, to achieve more sustainable tourism and make Mallorca a
better sustainable place. (Dodds, 2007). Tourism Council of Calvia approved the
new urban plans and adopted as a model for sustainable development in 1995
(Dodds, 2007). The main aim of the plan was to tackle the problem of
uncontrolled growth, water supply and to restore the surrounding landscape and
improve quality of amenities (Dodds, 2007). Examining the implementation of
Calvià’s Local Agenda 21 sustainable tourism strategy, several climate
change-relevant issues appear.

 

 

 

Regarding
the degradation of the coast beach, sea dredging which was before used to regenerate
beaches was stopped (Garcia & Servera, 2003) and measures to minimize
erosion were used (Dodds & Kelman, 2008).

To generally fight against pollution, some concreate initiates have been
instore under the Local Agenda 21. Few pedestrianized zones were created,
encouraging fewer motorized vehicles in the area, reducing greenhouse gas
emissions. Trees were also planted to uptake carbon and provide shade against
temperature increases (Dodds & Kelman, 2008).

 

Furthemore, In  1998, the Govern Balear offered the “Proposal
for a Hydrological Plan for the Balearic Islands”. This report set the targets
for water supply and management in Mallorca.

The following policies were apply :  Desalination plan in the bay of palma opened
in 1995, Recycled and treated water was privileged, and the authorities encouraged
sensible use of water and which penalize wasteful and extravagant use by
consumers (Kent, Newnham & Essex, 2002).

A other overall solution to mass tourism is the “eco tax”, also called “tourism
tax”. Proposed in Proposal in 1999 by the Progess Pact of the regional government
(Kent, Newnham, & Essex, 2002). The ” Eco tourism taxe”was Finally
put in effect the 1rst July 2016, after long discussion between the spanish govern lent .Up
to 2 euros per days, they have to be paid by the tourist depending the place
there are stauing… This new tourism tax is expected to bring in between
€60-70 million a year which will be spent on sustainable tourism projects
across Mallorca.

 

However, if there is a real wish from the authorities to implement sustainable
tourism in Mallorca, the efficiency of this policies must be nuanced. The
research of Dodds (2007) and Pridham (2007), shows that a lack of stakeholder
involvement, integration, and coordination did not allow the full success of
the policies.

In these researches, Dodds,
(2007), asked to private, public and NGO, and found out the following barriers.

First, an economic priority
(economic took priority as short term objective). For instance, an highway have
been constructed between the airport and the city of Clavia (Dodds, 2007),
rather than the creation of  more
sustainable transport and the expansion of public transport. A train link from
the Palma airport to Magaluf in Calvià was sidelined after the election, but a
new highway from Palma Nova to the neighboring municipality Peguera was built (Dodds
& Kelman, 2008). The bottom of the island is economy.

There was also a lack of
planning, in the way where it was hard to apply the plan, because a lot of
damage where mad already is the island, as presented in the first part of this
paper.

Then, a lack stakeholder
involvement was an important barrier to the success of the policy. The
involvement of the stakeholder, strong at the start of the LA21, came down for
two mains reasons (Dodds, 2007). First, the Mallorca Community and the outside
world did not see drastic changes happening and get disappointed. Indeed,
because Mallorca was really damaged because of the mass tourism, the pression
on the resource were still really high.

Some actions of the LA21
have been wrongly received, because economics cost have risen – results of the
implementation of the news policiesJA6 
(Dodds, 2007). The population is a key factor to the successful implementation
of the policies, they should be engage wider in the process.

 

Furthermore, the other face
of the medal of having a micro political application of the sustainable
policies. If there then more specifics and adapted to the specials need, there
is a lack of integration with others government levels and government bodies.
No regional or national coherence then create news problems in some fields, as
transports for example (different kind of transport, differents policies,
prices). Thus, Sustainable tourism requires close coordination and
communication between many other sectors: taxation, transportation, housing,
social development, because it is closely link to it.

Plus, four-year political
term is not long enough to implement a plan of 15 years, and promises have been
made for gaining votes. This lead to a lack of accountability by politicians. In
Mai 2003, almost 10 years after the first signature of the LA21, the plan
vision was faded and not perfectly implemented anymore, due to the barriers to
the implementation process. A long term vision is required for sustainability.

To conclude, integration
cooperation with others sectors, wider integration of the population and
long-term visions, supported at both regional and national levels are the key
to realize wider polices objectives.

 JA1Plus
de lien avec Mallorca

 JA2Shorter !!!!

 JA3How to reference ?

 JA4Need more referencing

 JA5Alexis arguments

 JA6Too vague