v Composed of the bones in the head, trunk,

v  The Skeletal System is composed of
bones and tissues

Ø  Bone:
The substance that forms the skeleton of the body. It is composed chiefly of
calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. It also serves as a storage area for
calcium, playing a large role in calcium balance in the blood.

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Ø  Tissue:
A group or layer of similarly specialized cells that together perform certain
special functions.

Ø  Ligament:
Connects bones to other bones

Ø  Tendon:
Attatches muscles to bones.

Ø  Joint:
Joints support movement.

Ø  Cartilage:
Protects the bones, and acts as a cushion between the bones and joints.

v  The Skeleton can be divided into
two sections:

Ø  The Axial Skeleton

§  Composed
of the bones in the head, trunk, and vertebrae. 80 bones

Ø  The Appendicular Skeleton

Composed of the shoulder girdle, the
pelvic girdle, and the bones in the arms and legs. 126 bones.

v  The Skeleton has six major

Ø  Support:
It is the framework that supports and maintains the shape of the body.

Ø  Movement:
Joints, which are in between bones, allow for movement e.g. ball and socket

Ø  Protection:
The skeleton protects our organs from damage e.g. the skull protects the brain
and eyes, ribs protect the lungs and heart, the vertebrae protect the spinal

Ø  Blood Cell Production:
The development of bleed cells, Haematopoiesis, happens in the skeleton.

Ø  Storage:
Calcium is stored in the bone matrix, and also bone marrow can store iron and

v  Bone Composition

Ø  Compact Bone: Dense
bone e.g. the long bones in the arms and legs.

Ø  Spongy Bone:
Honeycomb-like, flexible e.g. ribs, skull, vertebrae

Ø  Bone Marrow:
Soft blood-forming tissue that fills cavities of bones, and contains fat and
immature, as well as mature blood cells.

v  Bone Shapes:

Ø  Long Bones: Hard,
dense bones that provide strength, structure, and mobility e.g. arms, legs, and

Ø  Short:
As wide as they are long. Provides support and stability e.g.wrist and ankles

Ø  Flat:
Expanded into broad flat plates. Provides extensive protection e.g. skull and

Ø  Irregular:
Various functions in the body such as, protection of nervous tissue tongue
attachment. e.g. Spine