UNIVERSITYOF AGRICULTURE, FAISALABAD INSTITUTE OF SOIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES (Synopsis forM.Sc.
(Hons.) Soil Science) TITLE: EnhancingP uptake in maize(zia mays L.)through integrated use of acidified organic amendment and diammonium phosphate(DAP). Name of Student : Haider Raza Registration No.
: 2012-ag-2806 Name of Supervisor : Dr. Muhammad Naveed ABSTRACT Low organic matter, fixation of phosphorous with CaCO3and high pH are major causes of low availability of Phosphorous (P) to plantsin Pakistani soils. For higher production excessive fertilizer are applied tosoil which are mostly lost by fixation into the soil which make it unavailablefor plants. P uptake can be increased by organic amendment and combination of(DAP). For this purpose, an experiment will be conducted at Research Area ofSoil and Environment Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad.
In thisfield trial, P uptake inmaize yield through integrated use of acidified organic amendment anddiammonium phosphate (DAP) will be investigated. We will use randomizedcomplete block design (RCBD) with 8 treatments.1- CONTROL2- DAP(FULL 100%) RECOMMENDED 3- PRODUCT(SOLID) 200Kg/ACRE4- PRODUCT(FERTIGATE) 200Kg/ACRE5- PRODUCT(SOLID) +DAP(FULL)6- PRODUCT(FERTIGATE) +DAP( FULL)7- PRODUCT(SOLID) +½DAP8- PRODUCT(FERTIGATE) +½ DAPWiththree replications. Agronomic parameters such as total biomass, 1000 grainweight and phosphorous contents, comb fresh weight, dry weight, fresh weight,no of grains per treatment, plant height. Soil samples will be collected from0-15 and 15-30cm depths with the help of auger and physical properties of soilsuch as bulk density, porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and soil moisturecontents. Data will be statistically analyzed by ANOVA and treatments will becompared by using LSD test. 1UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, FAISALABAD INSTITUTE OF SOIL AND ENVIRONMENTALSCIENCES (Synopsis for M.Sc.
(Hons.) Soil Science) I.TITLE: Enhancing P uptake inmaize(zia mays L.) through integrateduse of acidified organic amendment and diammonium phosphate (DAP).
a) Date of Admission : 08-09-2016 b) Date of Initiation : 28-02-2017 c) Probable Duration : 6 months II. PERSONAL a) Name ofStudent b) RegistrationNo. c) Name ofSupervisor : Haider Raza : 2012-ag-2806 : Dr.
Muhammad Naveed III. SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE • Dr. Muhammad Naveed : Chairman • Dr. Hafiz Naeem Asghar : Member • Dr.
Irfan Afzal : Member IV. NEED FOR THE PROJECT Phosphorous is an essential macro nutrient for plants(Goldstein et al., 1988) applied to crops after nitrogen as fertilizer.
Its application significantly affect grain yield (Ali et al.,2002) aswell as dry matter yield and plant characters like height, number of leaves andleaf area (Ayub et al., 2002).
It has its important role in livingthings due to part of RNA and energy as ATP (Havlin et 2 al., 2004). It is important for plantgrowth, consumption of sugar and starch, involved inphotosynthesis, nucleusformation and cell division, fat and albumen formation and carbohydratesmetabolism (Ayub et al., 2002). Hence, P deficiency may affect plant’sphysiological processes and metabolic pathways negatively which ultimatelydecreases plant growth (Din et al.
, 2011). Phosphorous limit cropproduction on more than 30% of world agricultural lands (Vance et al., 2003),its supply to plants depend upon soil (Grant et al., 2005).
In manyagricultural soilsits availability is very low despite having large reservoirof phosphorous (often hundred times more than required by the plants) (Al-Abbasand Barber, 1964). Phosphorous present in soil solution is less than 1% of thetotal P taken up by plants and approximately 99% of P taken up by plants beingbound to soil constituents before uptake (Morel, 2002). Main reason for lowavailable P to plants is the formation of insoluble complexes; in acidicconditions with Al and Fe while in alkaline conditions with Ca and Mg. About 80-90% of arid andsemi-arid region soils are deficit in plant available P (Memon et al.,1992; NFDC, 2001). Pakistani soils are alkaline and calcareous (Memon et al.
,1992) andP is present as Ca complexes with different solubility (Rahmatullah etal., 1994). Such soils are naturally poor in available P (Barber, 1995). Inthese soils there are problems with phosphorous availability of chemicalfertilizer by fixation (Sayin et al., 1990) and only 20% of the appliedP is taken up by plants (Ju et al., 2007).
Plants growing in low availableP obtain it from adsorbed, sparingly soluble and organic complexes that existin soils by biochemical mechanisms (Raghothama and Karthikeyan, 2005).Carboxylates such as citrate and malate are the major root exudates releaseunder P deficiency for mobilizing its uptake (Neumann and Römheld, 1999;Dechassa and Schenk, 2004). The quantity of carboxylates released dependent onthe plant species (Ohwaki and Hirata, 1992; Dechassa and Schenk, 2004).Genotypes of the same crop species are also differ in their ability to releaseorganic anions and in their ability to mobilize P from sparingly solublecompounds (Dong et al., 2004; Corrales et al.
, 2007). Releasedanion binds phosphate from P complexes by ligand exchange in soil and makes itavailable for plants (Raghothama and Karthikeyan, 2005). 3 Root exudation mainly dependsupon nutrient deficit conditions of soils.
Plants species releasephytosiderophores due to deficiency of P, Fe and Zn (Haynes, 1990; Jones and Darrah,1994). Under P stress, C3 plant releasesmore citric acid and C4 plants releasesmore tartaric acid and malic acid (Vranova et al., 2013). Components ofroot exudates also vary under aerobic and anaerobic condition also (Jackson andIlamurugu, 2014). Considering these facts, ahydroponics experiment will be conducted in order to investigate rice growthand organic acids production like Citrate, Malate and Oxalate under normal andphosphorous stressed environment. Objectives • Screening of Phosphorous efficient rice genotypes. • To determine exudates amount secreted in phosphorous deficitenvironment. V.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE: Jackson and Ilamurugu (2014) conducted an experiment tostudy the chemical composition of rice root exudates under anaerobic conditions.Analysis was performed with HPLC and GC. They reported that rice root exudatescontain amino acids, sugars and organic acids at various crop growth stages. Atearly stages rice roots exude higher amount of organic acids (0.
95M g-1root of acetic acid), sugars (Glucose-1.77 M g-1root) and amino acids (Alanine-0.34 M g-1root) while root exudation decreased in later stages (acetic acid-0.21 M g-1root, glucose-1.10 M g-1root).
Xin-Bin et al. (2012.)conducted an experiment using two rape cultivars (genotype LG and genotype HG)that differed in P-uptake due to root morphology and organic acid release undersparingly soluble phosphate (Fe-P and Al-P). He reported that root exudateshave ability to activate insoluble P under P stress, parameters like rootlength, root tips and surface area of genotype HG were significant thangenotype LG.
Zhang et al. (2011)conducted an experiment to determine P uptake efficiency of two rapeseedgenotypes under two sparingly soluble P sources. P efficient genotypes underlow P conditions cause acidification of Rhizosphere due to H+ion efflux, H+-ATPaseactivity and 4 exudation of carboxylates.
He reported that genotype 102 isP efficient while genotype 105 is P inefficient. Carvalhais et al. (2011)conducted an experiment on maize plants grown under N, P, K, Fe deficiency andreported that Plant grown under Fe-deficiency release a higher amount ofribitol, glucose, citrate and glutamate. Amino butyric acid and carbohydrateswere released under P-deficiency, k deficiency releases less sugar while underN-deficiency lower amount of amino acids are produced in exudates. He concludedthat release of root exudates is mechanism to subsist under deficiency ofnutrients in plants. Long et al. (2008)stated that organic acids increase availability of carbonate fixed P becauseorganic acids compete P for binding sites. A dialysis tubing analysis wasperformed to quantify dissolved organic acids in vegetative (sea grass) andnon-vegetative (bulk pore-water concentrations) medium.
He reported thatphosphate concentration is positively related to organic acids prouction,organic acids increased productivity of sea grass under P-limited environment. Pearse et al. (2007)conducted a comparative experiment between six crops (Wheat, Sarsoon,Chickpea, Pea, white lupin, Blue Lupin and Lupinus cosentinii) totestify their ability to utilize slowly soluble P(AlPO4,FePO4 and Ca5OH(PO4)3).These crops were grown in sand and P was applied @ 40 mg P kg?1.Plant species varied in their ability to utilize P due to release ofcarboxylates. Singh and Pandey (2003)conducted a study to check both qualitative and quantitative differences inroot exudation of different maize and green gram genotypes, availability of Pincreased by exudation of organic acids while green gram released more organicacids than maize. Genetic variability was found in exudation of organic acidsof maize and green gram genotypes. He reported that there is a positivecorrelation between P uptake rate and total root exudation.
Egle et al. (2003)conducted an experiment with and without P fertilization to check qualitativeand quantitative exudation of organic acids from six cultivars of three lupinspecies, two cultivers of each species were grown on sand for 21 days, rootexudates were collected in 0.05 mM CaCl2.Under P-deficiency eight organic acids (citric, 2-oxoglutaric, malic, succinic, 5 lactic, formic, acetic and fumaric acids) from three lupinspp. L. angustifolius had highest carboxylate efflux. Under P-deficiencyprotoid roots developed and citrate exudation rate on average 67% for L.albus, 37% for L.
angustifolius and 72% for L. luteus werefound. Lambers et al. (2002)investigated carboxylates exuded from of Banksia grandisL. Plants were grownon sand with phosphate @ 25 ?g P g?1using different P sources like K-phosphate, glycerol phosphate, Fe-phosphate orAl-phosphate.
Citrate, malate and trans-aconitate were major carboxylates andwere released 60%, 25% and 14% respectively when P added as Al-phosphate. WhileFe-phosphate carboxylates released relatively in less amount i.e.
citrate(31%), malate (14%) and trans-aconitase (12%). Monocarboxylates were alsoreleased by these plants like Lactate (30%) and acetate (12%). Aulakh et al. (2001)conducted an experiment to check the exudation of ten rice cultivars atdifferent stages from seedling to maturity. Exudation rate was generally lowestat seedling stage increased till flowering and decreased at maturity. Amongorganic acids, malic acid was released in utmost amount. Neumann and Römheld (1999)conducted a comparative experiment in solution culture to check P inducedmetabolic changes (exudation of carboxylic acids and protons) in wheat (cv.Haro), tomato (cv.
Moneymaker), chickpea and white lupin (cv. Amiga). Protonexudation from tomato, chickpea and white lupin was increased underP-deficiency while release of carboxylic acids with proton increased in rootsof chickpea and white lupin but not in wheat and tomato. Citric acid was one ofimportant carboxylic acid investigated in all species in P-stressed environmentand this was due to increased activity of PEP carboxylase required for citratesynthesis. The results suggest that P deficiency induced exudation of carboxylicacids depends on the ability to accumulate carboxylic acids in the root tissue.
In some plant species such as white lupin, there is specific transportmechanism (anion channel) of root exudation in high amount of citric acid. VI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A field experiment will be conducted at field area Instituteof Soil and Environment Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad.Experiment will consist of eight treatments of phosphate fertilizer (DAP) andacidified amendment with dose before sowing of maize (zea mays L.)1- CONTROL2- DAP(FULL 100%) RECOMMENDED 3- PRODUCT(SOLID) 200Kg/ACRE4- PRODUCT(FERTIGATE) 200Kg/ACRE5- PRODUCT(SOLID) +DAP(FULL)6- PRODUCT(FERTIGATE) +DAP( FULL)7- PRODUCT(SOLID) +½DAP8- PRODUCT(FERTIGATE) +½ DAPAt first water same dose willbe applied in solid form and at the time of second water fertigate will beapplied. Parameters: Plantheight (cm) Total biomass (g) 1000 grain weight (g) Comb fresh weight (g) Dry weight (g) Fresh weight (g) No of grains per treatment Phosphorous contents VII.Statistical analysis The data obtained will bestatistically analyzed using computer based software; STATISTIX 8.
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