UNIVERSITY use of acidified organic amendment and diammonium phosphate

UNIVERSITY
OF AGRICULTURE, FAISALABAD

 

INSTITUTE OF SOIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES (Synopsis for
M.Sc. (Hons.) Soil Science)

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TITLE: Enhancing
P uptake in maize(zia mays L.)
through integrated use of acidified organic amendment and diammonium phosphate
(DAP).

 

Name of Student

:

Haider Raza

Registration No.

:

2012-ag-2806

Name of Supervisor

:

Dr. Muhammad Naveed

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

Low organic matter, fixation of phosphorous with CaCO3
and high pH are major causes of low availability of Phosphorous (P) to plants
in Pakistani soils. For higher production excessive fertilizer are applied to
soil which are mostly lost by fixation into the soil which make it unavailable
for plants. P uptake can be increased by organic amendment and combination of
(DAP). For this purpose, an experiment will be conducted at Research Area of
Soil and Environment Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. In this
field trial, P uptake in
maize yield through integrated use of acidified organic amendment and
diammonium phosphate (DAP) will be investigated. We will use randomized
complete block design (RCBD) with 8 treatments.

1-     CONTROL

2-     DAP
(FULL 100%) RECOMMENDED

3-     PRODUCT
(SOLID) 200Kg/ACRE

4-     PRODUCT
(FERTIGATE) 200Kg/ACRE

5-     PRODUCT
(SOLID)               +DAP(
FULL)

6-     PRODUCT
(FERTIGATE)      +DAP( FULL)

7-     PRODUCT
(SOLID)               +½
DAP

8-     PRODUCT
(FERTIGATE)      +½ DAP

With
three replications. Agronomic parameters such as total biomass, 1000 grain
weight and phosphorous contents, comb fresh weight, dry weight, fresh weight,
no of grains per treatment, plant height. Soil samples will be collected from
0-15 and 15-30cm depths with the help of auger and physical properties of soil
such as bulk density, porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and soil moisture
contents. Data will be statistically analyzed by ANOVA and treatments will be
compared by using LSD test.

 

 

 

 

 

1

UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, FAISALABAD

 

INSTITUTE OF SOIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL
SCIENCES

 

(Synopsis for M.Sc. (Hons.) Soil Science)

 

 

 

 

I.
TITLE: Enhancing P uptake in
maize(zia mays L.) through integrated
use of acidified organic amendment and diammonium phosphate (DAP).

 

 

a) Date of Admission

:

08-09-2016

b) Date of Initiation

:

28-02-2017

c) Probable Duration

:

6 months

 

II. PERSONAL

 

a)    Name of
Student

 

b)  Registration
No.

 

c)  Name of
Supervisor

 

 

:                      
Haider Raza

 

:                      
2012-ag-2806

 

:                      
Dr. Muhammad Naveed

 

 

III. SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE

 

 

 

•  
Dr. Muhammad Naveed

:

Chairman

Dr. Hafiz Naeem Asghar

:

Member

 

Dr. Irfan Afzal

:

Member

 

 

 

 

 

IV. NEED FOR THE PROJECT

 

Phosphorous is an essential macro nutrient for plants
(Goldstein et al., 1988) applied to crops after nitrogen as fertilizer.
Its application significantly affect grain yield (Ali et al.,2002) as
well as dry matter yield and plant characters like height, number of leaves and
leaf area (Ayub et al., 2002). It has its important role in living
things due to part of RNA and energy as ATP (Havlin et

 

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al., 2004). It is important for plant
growth, consumption of sugar and starch, involved inphotosynthesis, nucleus
formation and cell division, fat and albumen formation and carbohydrates
metabolism (Ayub et al., 2002). Hence, P deficiency may affect plant’s
physiological processes and metabolic pathways negatively which ultimately
decreases plant growth (Din et al., 2011).

 

Phosphorous limit crop
production on more than 30% of world agricultural lands (Vance et al., 2003),
its supply to plants depend upon soil (Grant et al., 2005). In many
agricultural soilsits availability is very low despite having large reservoir
of phosphorous (often hundred times more than required by the plants) (Al-Abbas
and Barber, 1964). Phosphorous present in soil solution is less than 1% of the
total P taken up by plants and approximately 99% of P taken up by plants being
bound to soil constituents before uptake (Morel, 2002). Main reason for low
available P to plants is the formation of insoluble complexes; in acidic
conditions with Al and Fe while in alkaline conditions with Ca and Mg.

 

About 80-90% of arid and
semi-arid region soils are deficit in plant available P (Memon et al.,
1992; NFDC, 2001). Pakistani soils are alkaline and calcareous (Memon et al.,
1992) andP is present as Ca complexes with different solubility (Rahmatullah et
al., 1994). Such soils are naturally poor in available P (Barber, 1995). In
these soils there are problems with phosphorous availability of chemical
fertilizer by fixation (Sayin et al., 1990) and only 20% of the applied
P is taken up by plants (Ju et al., 2007).

 

Plants growing in low available
P obtain it from adsorbed, sparingly soluble and organic complexes that exist
in soils by biochemical mechanisms (Raghothama and Karthikeyan, 2005).
Carboxylates such as citrate and malate are the major root exudates release
under P deficiency for mobilizing its uptake (Neumann and Römheld, 1999;
Dechassa and Schenk, 2004). The quantity of carboxylates released dependent on
the plant species (Ohwaki and Hirata, 1992; Dechassa and Schenk, 2004).
Genotypes of the same crop species are also differ in their ability to release
organic anions and in their ability to mobilize P from sparingly soluble
compounds (Dong et al., 2004; Corrales et al., 2007). Released
anion binds phosphate from P complexes by ligand exchange in soil and makes it
available for plants (Raghothama and Karthikeyan, 2005).

 

 

 

 

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Root exudation mainly depends
upon nutrient deficit conditions of soils. Plants species release
phytosiderophores due to deficiency of P, Fe and Zn (Haynes, 1990; Jones and Darrah,
1994). Under P stress, C3 plant releases
more citric acid and C4 plants releases
more tartaric acid and malic acid (Vranova et al., 2013). Components of
root exudates also vary under aerobic and anaerobic condition also (Jackson and
Ilamurugu, 2014).

 

Considering these facts, a
hydroponics experiment will be conducted in order to investigate rice growth
and organic acids production like Citrate, Malate and Oxalate under normal and
phosphorous stressed environment.

 

Objectives

 

•        
Screening of Phosphorous efficient rice genotypes.

 

•        
To determine exudates amount secreted in phosphorous deficit
environment.

 

V. REVIEW OF LITERATURE:

 

Jackson and Ilamurugu (2014) conducted an experiment to
study the chemical composition of rice root exudates under anaerobic conditions.
Analysis was performed with HPLC and GC. They reported that rice root exudates
contain amino acids, sugars and organic acids at various crop growth stages. At
early stages rice roots exude higher amount of organic acids (0.95M g-1
root of acetic acid), sugars (Glucose-1.77 M g-1
root) and amino acids (Alanine-0.34 M g-1
root) while root exudation decreased in later stages (acetic acid-0.21 M g-1
root, glucose-1.10 M g-1
root).

 

Xin-Bin et al. (2012.)
conducted an experiment using two rape cultivars (genotype LG and genotype HG)
that differed in P-uptake due to root morphology and organic acid release under
sparingly soluble phosphate (Fe-P and Al-P). He reported that root exudates
have ability to activate insoluble P under P stress, parameters like root
length, root tips and surface area of genotype HG were significant than
genotype LG.

 

Zhang et al. (2011)
conducted an experiment to determine P uptake efficiency of two rapeseed
genotypes under two sparingly soluble P sources. P efficient genotypes under
low P conditions cause acidification of Rhizosphere due to H+
ion efflux, H+-ATPase
activity and

 

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exudation of carboxylates. He reported that genotype 102 is
P efficient while genotype 105 is P inefficient.

 

Carvalhais et al. (2011)
conducted an experiment on maize plants grown under N, P, K, Fe deficiency and
reported that Plant grown under Fe-deficiency release a higher amount of
ribitol, glucose, citrate and glutamate. Amino butyric acid and carbohydrates
were released under P-deficiency, k deficiency releases less sugar while under
N-deficiency lower amount of amino acids are produced in exudates. He concluded
that release of root exudates is mechanism to subsist under deficiency of
nutrients in plants.

 

Long et al. (2008)
stated that organic acids increase availability of carbonate fixed P because
organic acids compete P for binding sites. A dialysis tubing analysis was
performed to quantify dissolved organic acids in vegetative (sea grass) and
non-vegetative (bulk pore-water concentrations) medium. He reported that
phosphate concentration is positively related to organic acids prouction,
organic acids increased productivity of sea grass under P-limited environment.

 

Pearse et al. (2007)
conducted a comparative experiment between six crops (Wheat, Sarsoon,
Chickpea, Pea, white lupin, Blue Lupin and Lupinus cosentinii) to
testify their ability to utilize slowly soluble P(AlPO4,
FePO4 and Ca5OH(PO4)3).
These crops were grown in sand and P was applied @ 40 mg P kg?1.
Plant species varied in their ability to utilize P due to release of
carboxylates.

 

Singh and Pandey (2003)
conducted a study to check both qualitative and quantitative differences in
root exudation of different maize and green gram genotypes, availability of P
increased by exudation of organic acids while green gram released more organic
acids than maize. Genetic variability was found in exudation of organic acids
of maize and green gram genotypes. He reported that there is a positive
correlation between P uptake rate and total root exudation.

 

Egle et al. (2003)
conducted an experiment with and without P fertilization to check qualitative
and quantitative exudation of organic acids from six cultivars of three lupin
species, two cultivers of each species were grown on sand for 21 days, root
exudates were collected in 0.05 mM CaCl2.
Under P-deficiency eight organic acids (citric, 2-oxoglutaric, malic, succinic,

 

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lactic, formic, acetic and fumaric acids) from three lupin
spp. L. angustifolius had highest carboxylate efflux. Under P-deficiency
protoid roots developed and citrate exudation rate on average 67% for L.
albus, 37% for L. angustifolius and 72% for L. luteus were
found.

 

Lambers et al. (2002)
investigated carboxylates exuded from of Banksia grandisL. Plants were grown
on sand with phosphate @ 25 ?g P g?1
using different P sources like K-phosphate, glycerol phosphate, Fe-phosphate or
Al-phosphate. Citrate, malate and trans-aconitate were major carboxylates and
were released 60%, 25% and 14% respectively when P added as Al-phosphate. While
Fe-phosphate carboxylates released relatively in less amount i.e. citrate
(31%), malate (14%) and trans-aconitase (12%). Monocarboxylates were also
released by these plants like Lactate (30%) and acetate (12%).

 

Aulakh et al. (2001)
conducted an experiment to check the exudation of ten rice cultivars at
different stages from seedling to maturity. Exudation rate was generally lowest
at seedling stage increased till flowering and decreased at maturity. Among
organic acids, malic acid was released in utmost amount.

 

Neumann and Römheld (1999)
conducted a comparative experiment in solution culture to check P induced
metabolic changes (exudation of carboxylic acids and protons) in wheat (cv.
Haro), tomato (cv. Moneymaker), chickpea and white lupin (cv. Amiga). Proton
exudation from tomato, chickpea and white lupin was increased under
P-deficiency while release of carboxylic acids with proton increased in roots
of chickpea and white lupin but not in wheat and tomato. Citric acid was one of
important carboxylic acid investigated in all species in P-stressed environment
and this was due to increased activity of PEP carboxylase required for citrate
synthesis. The results suggest that P deficiency induced exudation of carboxylic
acids depends on the ability to accumulate carboxylic acids in the root tissue.
In some plant species such as white lupin, there is specific transport
mechanism (anion channel) of root exudation in high amount of citric acid.

 

VI. MATERIALS AND METHODS:

 

A field experiment will be conducted at field area Institute
of Soil and Environment Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad.
Experiment will consist of eight treatments of phosphate fertilizer (DAP) and
acidified amendment with dose before sowing of maize (zea mays L.)

1-     CONTROL

2-     DAP
(FULL 100%) RECOMMENDED

3-     PRODUCT
(SOLID) 200Kg/ACRE

4-     PRODUCT
(FERTIGATE) 200Kg/ACRE

5-     PRODUCT
(SOLID)               +DAP(
FULL)

6-     PRODUCT
(FERTIGATE)      +DAP( FULL)

7-     PRODUCT
(SOLID)               +½
DAP

8-     PRODUCT
(FERTIGATE)      +½ DAP

At first water same dose will
be applied in solid form and at the time of second water fertigate will be
applied.

 

Parameters:

 

Plant
height (cm)

 

Total biomass (g)

 

1000 grain weight (g)

 

Comb fresh weight (g)

 

Dry weight (g)

 

Fresh weight (g)

 

No of grains per treatment

 

Phosphorous contents

 

VII.Statistical analysis

 

The data obtained will be
statistically analyzed using computer based software; STATISTIX 8.1®;
an analytical statistics program. After ANOVA table formation, Tukey’s HSD
(honest significant difference) test will be applied to check treatment
significance (Steel et al., 1997).

 

VIII. LITERATURE CITED

 

Al-Abbas,
A.H. and S.A. Barber. 1964. A soil test for phosphorus based upon fractionation
of soil phosphorus: I Correlation of soil phosphorus fraction with plant
available phosphorus. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proceedings. 28: 218-221.

 

Ali, J., J.
Bakht, M. Shafi, S. Khan and W.A. Shah. 2002. Uptake of nitrogen as affected by
various combinations of nitrogen and phosphorus. Asian J. Pl. Sci. 1: 367-369.

 

Aulakh,M.S.,
R. Wassmann, C. Bueno, J. Kreuzwieser and H. Rennenberg. 2001. Characterization
of root exudates at different growth stages of ten rice (Oryza sativa
L.) cultivars. Plant Bio. 3: 139-148.

 

Ayub, M.,
M.A. Nadeem, M.S. Sharar and N. Mahmood. 2002. Response of maize (Zea mays
L.) fodder to differentlevels of nitrogen and phosphorus. Asian J. Plant Sci.
1: 352-354.

 

Barber, S.A.
1995. Soil Nutrient Bioavailability. A mechanistic approach. 2nd ed. John Wiley
and Sons Inc. New York.

 

Carvalhais,
L.C., P.G. Dennis, D. Fedoseyenko, M.R. Hajirezaei, R. Borriss and N. von
Wirén. 2011. Root exudation of sugars, amino acids, and organic acids by maize
as affected by nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and iron deficiency. J. Plant
Nutr. Soil Sci. 174: 3-11.

 

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Corrales,
I., M. Amenós, C. Poschenrieder and J. Barceló. 2007. Phosphorus efficiency and
root exudates in two contrasting tropical maize varieties. J. of Plant Nutr.
30: 887-900.

 

Chen, Z.L.,
X.Y. Jin, Q.P. Wang, Y.M. Lin, L. Gan and C.X. Tang. 2007. Confirmation and
determination of carboxylic acids in root exudates using LC–ESI–MS. J. Sep.
Sci. 30: 2440–2446.

 

Dechassa, N.
and M.K. Schenk. 2004. Exudation of organic anions by roots of cabbage carrot
and potato as influenced by environmental factors and plant age. J. Plant Nutr.
and Soil Sci.167: 623-629.

 

Din, U.I.,
G. Ullah, M.S. Baloch, A.A. Baloch, I.U. Awan and E.A. Khan. 2011. Effect of
phosphorus and herbicide on yield and yield components of maize. Pak. J. Weed
Sci.17: 1-7.

 

Dong, D., X.
Peng and X. Yan. 2004. Organic acid exudation induced by phosphorus deficiency
and/ or aluminium toxicity in two contrasting soybean genotypes. Physiol.
Plant. 122: 190-199.

 

Egle, K., W.
Romer and H. Keller. 2003. Exudation of low molecular weight organic acids by Lupinus
albus L., Lupinus angustifolius L. and Lupinus luteus L. as
affected byphosphorus supply. Agronomie. 23: 511-518.

 

Goldstein,
A.H., D.A. Baertlein and R.G. McDaniel. 1988. Phosphate starvation inducible
metabolism in Lycopersicon esculentum. Plant Physiol. 87: 711-715.

 

Grant, C.,
S. Bittman, M. Montreal, C. Plenchette and C. Morel. 2005. Soil and fertilizer
phosphorus: Effects on plant P supply and mycorrhizal development. Can. J.
Plant Sci. 85: 3-14.

 

Havlin,
J.L., S.L. Tisdale and W.L. Nelson. 2004. Soil fertility and fertilizers: An
introduction to nutrient management. Prentic Hall.

 

Haynes,
R.J. 1990. Active ion  uptake and
maintenance of cation  anion
balance:  A critical

 

examination of their role in
regulating rhizosphere pH. Plant Soil. 126: 247–264.

 

 

 

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Jackson,
K.M. and K. Ilamurugu. 2014. Metabolic Profiling of Rice Root Exudates and its
Impact on Rhizosphere Microbial Dynamics under Aerobic Conditions. Res. J.
Agri. Sci. 5: 777-781.

 

Jones, D.L.
and P.R. Darrah. 1994. Role of root derived organic acids in the mobilization
of nutrients from the rhizosphere. Plant Soil. 166: 247–257.

 

Ju, X.T.,
C.L. Kou, P. Christie, Z.X. Dou and F.S. Zhang. 2007. Changes in the soil
environment from excessive application of fertilizers and manures to two
contrasting intensive cropping systems on the North China Plain. Environ.
Pollut. 145: 497-506.

 

Khorassani,
R., U. Hettwer, A. Ratzinger, B. Steingrobe, P. Karlovsky and N. Claassen.
2011. Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize
soil phosphorus. BMC plant bio. 11: 1.

 

Lambers, H.,
D. Juniper, G.R. Cawthray, E.J. Veneklaas and E. Martínez-Ferri. 2002. The
pattern of carboxylate exudation in Banksia grandis (Proteaceae) is
affected by the form of phosphate added to the soil. Plant and Soil. 238:
111-122.

 

Long, M.H.,
K.J. McGlathery, J.C. Zieman and P. Berg. 2008. The role of organic acid
exudates in liberating phosphorus from sea grass?vegetated
carbonates sediments. Limnology and Oceanography. 53: 2616-2626.

 

Memon, K.S.,
A. Rashid and H.K. Puno. 1992. Phosphorus deficiency diagnosis and P soil test
calibration in Pakistan. p. 125. In: Proceeding Phosphorous Decision
Support System College Station, TX.

 

Morel, C.
2002. Caractérisation de la phytodisponiblité du P dusol par la modélisation du
transfert des ions phosphate entre le sol et la solution. Habilitation à
Diriger des Recherches. INPL-ENSAIA Nancy. pp 80.

 

Neumann, G.
and V. Römheld. 1999. Root excretion of carboxylic acids and protons in
phosphorus-deficient plants. Plant and soil. 211: 121-130.

 

NFDC.  2001. 
Balanced  fertilization  through 
phosphate  promotion.  Project 
terminal  report.

 

NFDC, Islamabad, Pakistan.

 

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Ohwaki, Y.
and H. Hirata. 1992. Differences in carboxylic acid exudation among P-starved
leguminous crops in relation to carboxylic acid contents in plant tissues and
phospholipid level in roots. Soil Sci. and Plant Nutr. 38: 235-243.

 

Pearse,
S.J., E.J. Veneklaas, G.R. Cawthray, M.D. Bolland and H. Lambers. 2007.
Carboxylate composition of root exudates does not relate consistently to a crop
species’ ability to use phosphorus from aluminium, iron or calcium phosphate
sources. New Phytol. 173: 181-190.

 

Raghothama,
K.G. and A.S. Karthikeyan. 2005. Phosphate acquisition. Plant and Soil. 274:
37-49.

 

Rahmatullah,
M.A. Gill, B.Z. Sheikh and M. Salim.1994. Bio-availability and distribution of
P among inorganic fractions in calcareous soils. Arid soil Res. Rehab. 8:
227-234.

 

Sayin, M.,
A.R. Mermut and H. Tiessen. 1990. Phosphatesorption-desorption characteristics
by magnetically separated soil fraction. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 54: 1298-1304.

 

Singh, B. and
R. Pandey. 2003. Differences in root exudation among phosphorus?starved
genotypes of maize and green gram and its relationship with phosphorus uptake.
J. Plant Nutr. 26: 2391-2401.

 

Steel, R.G.
G., J.H. Torrie and D.A. Dickey. 1997. Principles and Procedures of Statistics.
A Biometrical Approach, 2nd
ed. McGraw-Hill. N. Y.

 

Vance, C.P.,
C. Uhde-Stone and D.L. Allan. 2003. Phosphorus acquisition and use: Critical
adaptations by plants for recurring a non-renewable resources. New Phytol. 157:
423-447.

 

Vranova, V.,
K. Rejsek, K.R. Skene, D. Janous and P. Formanek. 2013. Methods of collection
of plant root exudates in relation to plant metabolism and purpose: a review.
J. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 176: 175-199.

 

Wang, Z., J.
Shen and F. Zhang. 2006. Cluster-root formation, carboxylate exudation and
proton release of Lupinus pilosus as affected by medium pH and P deficiency.
Plant and Soil 287: 247-256.

 

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Xin-Bin, Z.,
H. Jian-Guo, Z. Yong-xiang and S. Wei-Ming. 2012. Genotypic variation of rape
in phosphorus uptake from sparingly soluble phosphate and its active mechanism.
African J. Biotech. 11: 3061-3069.

 

Zhang, H.,
Y. Huang, X. Ye and F. Xu. 2011. Genotypic variation in phosphorus acquisition
from sparingly soluble P sources is related to root morphology and root
exudates in Brassica napus. Sci. China Life Sci. 54: 1134-1142.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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