Uber through the use of designated devil’s advocates. By

Uber should clarify and formalize its company values and protocols in order to move its culture in a better direction and could facilitate employee management. While the organization decided to reform its values by crowdsourcing employees propose new ones and vote on them (Balakrishnan), the results,  “We build globally, we live locally. We are customer obsessed. We celebrate differences. We do the right thing. We act like owners. We persevere. We value ideas over hierarchy. We make big bold bets.” (Balakrishnan), are still ambiguous. In its ambiguity, these values continue to leave room for individual interpretations and thus run the risk of producing behaviors that differ from the desired ones. By including more detailed explanations and directions, Uber would allow for all employees to have a clearer idea of what the company’s expectations are and increase the success rate of its aspirational values. Once specific goals are established for employees to realize, Uber’s upper management should embed metrics, measure the change it desires, and hold everyone accountable to them. If they keep bringing down the culture, in accordance with the attrition theory and prevention of organizational inertia,  they need to leave. If the right people stay and join the company, Uber will have strong culture and produce a strong subordinate identity that its employees can identify with and feel a sense of belonging to, thus fostering a commitment to its success (Sethi et al.). However, it is  important to note that changing an organization’s espoused values does not necessarily ensure an equal change in the espoused beliefs (Culture, Class 7). But since the values were not imposed from the top and rather voted upon by the organization, the values are likely to be held in deep belief by a majority of the firm and thus will likely produce tangible changes and results. Uber’s Human Resources has been riddled with a broken process of decision making to support its employees. One way to rectify this is by implementing programmed conflict through the use of designated devil’s advocates. By assigning one person to represent each side in each situation, one could point out potential problems in each other’s arguments before reaching an informed conclusion. By having all sides represented and debated, the individual who reported to human resources will feel like they had their voice heard and that the process was both fair and impartial. Good social support also has the benefit of buffering the negative impact of sexual harassment on psychological health (Swan). In order to increase transparency, when providing the outcome of the decision, HR could also provide a written summary of the deliberation so the individual could better see how the team came to the conclusion they did. Practicing this would yield results that are not based in biased as well, because it would require decisions to be supported with evidence that are apart from status characteristics. To ensure that every complaint is answered and repercussions are dealt should they be needed, a software to track all HR complaints and disciplinary actions should be implemented. To improve communication between upper management and the HR department, the status and details of complaints should be allowed to be viewed by both parties at all times, the exception being there is a conflict of interest.A potential problem that can arise regarding procedural justice through devil’s advocate, is that there could arise disagreement between team members that would provoke relationship conflict because of a more advocacy approach (Cosier, Schwenk). However, if the team members are constantly rotated out, this should minimize the risk of that happening. Uber has agreed to adjust its promotion and bonus process to remove numerical performance ratings and instead use committee reviews on individual, peer, and manager evaluations (Dickey). The adoption of a pay-for-performance system is similar to how Uber drivers are rewarded and penalized based on their driver ratings. Upper management should implement a peer review system where employees are compensated based on their performance ratings, that should have been reformed by the performance evaluation recommendations proposed prior. In this implementation, Uber employees are incentivized to respect and to treat other employees fairly since their extrinsic motivation factors are highly dependent on their day-to-day performance and their behavior towards one another (Motivation & Incentives, Class 22). In terms of what specific extrinsic motivation factors Uber should offer, according to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, there are five different levels of human motivators, but the individual can only pursue them in a sequential order, starting from the lowest level of needs (Motivation & Incentives, Class 22). If women and other marginalized workers are working in an environment that prevents them from satisfying their personal security and sense of belonging needs, then these workers are likely to be demotivated in realizing their full potential in terms of productivity and creativity. Therefore, through implementing various incentive systems within the organization. Uber should offer different options in terms of compensation and benefits that will be better suited to its marginalized workers so needs for “safety” and “belonging” are satisfied (Motivation & Incentives, Class 22). For women, this could mean longer maternity leaves, more flexible working hours, on-site daycare services or even different forms of diversity programs.