Tourism in the Arctic is expanding, and the Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment (PAME) is looking at measures and guidelines to promote sustainable marine tourism (NMCE, 2016). The Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment Working Group (PAME) has conducted an assessment of Arctic shipping that use/ carriage of heavy oil fuel (HFO). PAME has also assessed the need to designate areas in the high seas area of the Arctic Ocean that warrant protection from the risks posed by shipping, and has identified possible measures to reduce the risk of environmental damage (Det Norske Veritas, 2013). Tourism poses a risk to the environment and is also a human risk in the event of a serious shipping incident in which the many thousands of tourists on a single vessel are likely to strain rescue operations (Triggs, 2011).
Concerning the negative effect of the tourism, the IAATO developed a code of conduct for to minimize impact (Stewart et al., 2005). Visitors are also cautioned regarding the interference and disturbances to the wildlife and fragile plants in the protected areas (Bauer & Dowling, 2003). Additional IAATO guidelines require that tour operators be familiar with the act and to comply with it, to be aware of protected areas, to enforce the visitor’s code of conduct, to hire a professional team of expedition leaders, to provide a qualified guidance for every 20-25 passengers to monitor small groups by limiting the number to 100 passengers (Bauer & Dowling, 2003).
The growing concerns about the relationship between tourism and the environment have begun to be addressed through the WWF aiming to promote conservation and to maximize benefits of tourism (Humphreys et al., 1998; Mason, 1997; Stewart et al., 2005). A combination of codes of conduct and legislative framework could offer arctic strategy for the tourism sector (Johnston, 1997).
Polar code : The polar code that enters into the force from 1 January 2017 related to the protection of the environment in flowing ways.
(i) It applies to ships operating in arctic waters: additional to existing MARPOL1 requirements
(ii) It provides for safe ship operation and protects the environment by addressing the unique risks present in polar waters but not covered by other instruments
1 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL)