This gathered through a questionnaire-based survey with meat consumers

This study applied a deductive and
quantitative approach (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2012). According to
Jonathan Wilson (2010), a deductive approach was employed when “developing
a hypothesis (or hypotheses) based on existing theory, and then designing a
research strategy to test the hypothesis”. These two approaches help to
inspect the influence of essential elements on consumers’ choice of retail
outlets for fresh meat purchasing in Thu Dau Mot city, Vietnam.


3.2 Sampling method

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Due to limited budget and time,
Convenience sampling will be executed for participants. According to Malhotra
et al (2008), convenience sampling is defined as a non-probability sampling
technique that attempts to obtain a sample of convenient elements.

Initially, the participants for the
survey come mainly from the social network of the researcher. These
participants can be friends, neighbors, relatives or family members.

The benefits of this sampling method are
that it’s easy to reach participants and the researcher doesn’t need to spend
more time on each occasion.


3.3 Variable

Instrumentation and data source: All the
independent variables were measured by a 5-point Likert scale demonstrating
consumers’ ideas on different marketing mix factors. The consumers ‘choice of
retail outlets was assessed by the purchase frequency and money spent on fresh
meat in the past.

Before conducting the fieldwork, the
questionnaire was pre-tested to remove potential problems relating to

Thu Dau Mot city is chosen as the
research area because it is one of the big residential cities in the south of
Vietnam including lots of available modern and traditional retail outlets.

Because of limited budget and time
constraints, the survey only focuses on geographic area.

The traditional market will be chosen
randomly because there are many wet markets in Thu Dau Mot city.

The study was conducted from August 2017
until April 2018 at some traditional and modern markets randomly picked around
Thu Dau Mot city and 150 respondents were interviewed.










Monthly Income


Education level


Marital status




How many people live in your
household, including yourself


Do you have any children under 18
living in your household?


How many children that you have?



3.4 Data
collection strategies

The research is based on both secondary
and primary data collection. The secondary data came from trustworthy and
empirical evidence of various scholars relating to food buying behavior,
consumers’ choice of retail outlets for fresh meat, fresh meat attributes, and
marketing mix factors. However primary data occupies the most because the
secondary data are not precise enough for Vietnamese fresh meat consumers.

quantitative data were gathered through a questionnaire-based survey with meat
consumers in Thu Dau Mot city, Vietnam,

study implements the survey method, and then a structured questionnaire must be
established. According to Tull and Hawkins (1990), lots of areas of data can be
exploited by using survey method, as attitudes, feelings, beliefs, past and
intended behaviors, knowledge and personal characteristics. In marketing
research, using survey method is always the most well-known way of primary
data. The survey method is simple to manage and it can support by giving
trustworthy data even when only having limited responses (Malhotra et al.2008)

study mainly implemented SPSS v. 17 to analyze data.

survey will be conducted at some predetermined modern and traditional retail
outlets. This action is considered to give a correct means of data collection.
Spending less time and effort for researchers will be benefits when using the
shopping mall intercepts method because they don’t have to spend money on the
attraction interviewee’s willingness (Hair, 2008).

questionnaire was divided into 2 sections:

first section is exploring socio-demographic information of respondents.
According to Bonne and Verbeke (2006) and Krystallis and Arvanitoyannis (2006),
there are interrelations appeared between socio-demographic characteristics
such as income, education level, gender, family size, number of children in the
house and the quality of fresh meat.

second section is deeply investigating all factors influence on consumers’
choice of retail outlets for fresh meat

target meat for this study is fresh meat (chicken, pork or beef).