This study applied a deductive andquantitative approach (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2012). According toJonathan Wilson (2010), a deductive approach was employed when “developinga hypothesis (or hypotheses) based on existing theory, and then designing aresearch strategy to test the hypothesis”.
These two approaches help toinspect the influence of essential elements on consumers’ choice of retailoutlets for fresh meat purchasing in Thu Dau Mot city, Vietnam. 3.2 Sampling methodDue to limited budget and time,Convenience sampling will be executed for participants. According to Malhotraet al (2008), convenience sampling is defined as a non-probability samplingtechnique that attempts to obtain a sample of convenient elements.Initially, the participants for thesurvey come mainly from the social network of the researcher. Theseparticipants can be friends, neighbors, relatives or family members. The benefits of this sampling method arethat it’s easy to reach participants and the researcher doesn’t need to spendmore time on each occasion.
3.3 VariablemeasurementInstrumentation and data source: All theindependent variables were measured by a 5-point Likert scale demonstratingconsumers’ ideas on different marketing mix factors. The consumers ‘choice ofretail outlets was assessed by the purchase frequency and money spent on freshmeat in the past. Before conducting the fieldwork, thequestionnaire was pre-tested to remove potential problems relating toquestions.Thu Dau Mot city is chosen as theresearch area because it is one of the big residential cities in the south ofVietnam including lots of available modern and traditional retail outlets.Because of limited budget and timeconstraints, the survey only focuses on geographic area.
The traditional market will be chosenrandomly because there are many wet markets in Thu Dau Mot city. The study was conducted from August 2017until April 2018 at some traditional and modern markets randomly picked aroundThu Dau Mot city and 150 respondents were interviewed. Measurement scale Social-demographic factor Nominal Gender Nominal Occupation Interval Monthly Income Nominal Education level Nominal Marital status Interval Age Ratio How many people live in your household, including yourself Yes/no Do you have any children under 18 living in your household? Ratio How many children that you have? 3.4 Datacollection strategiesThe research is based on both secondaryand primary data collection. The secondary data came from trustworthy andempirical evidence of various scholars relating to food buying behavior,consumers’ choice of retail outlets for fresh meat, fresh meat attributes, andmarketing mix factors.
However primary data occupies the most because thesecondary data are not precise enough for Vietnamese fresh meat consumers. Primaryquantitative data were gathered through a questionnaire-based survey with meatconsumers in Thu Dau Mot city, Vietnam,Thisstudy implements the survey method, and then a structured questionnaire must beestablished. According to Tull and Hawkins (1990), lots of areas of data can beexploited by using survey method, as attitudes, feelings, beliefs, past andintended behaviors, knowledge and personal characteristics. In marketingresearch, using survey method is always the most well-known way of primarydata. The survey method is simple to manage and it can support by givingtrustworthy data even when only having limited responses (Malhotra et al.2008) Thisstudy mainly implemented SPSS v.
17 to analyze data.Thesurvey will be conducted at some predetermined modern and traditional retailoutlets. This action is considered to give a correct means of data collection.Spending less time and effort for researchers will be benefits when using theshopping mall intercepts method because they don’t have to spend money on theattraction interviewee’s willingness (Hair, 2008).
Thequestionnaire was divided into 2 sections:Thefirst section is exploring socio-demographic information of respondents.According to Bonne and Verbeke (2006) and Krystallis and Arvanitoyannis (2006),there are interrelations appeared between socio-demographic characteristicssuch as income, education level, gender, family size, number of children in thehouse and the quality of fresh meat.Thesecond section is deeply investigating all factors influence on consumers’choice of retail outlets for fresh meatThetarget meat for this study is fresh meat (chicken, pork or beef).