There are many dissimilar types of kinship that the body can
induce with the microflora. These are:
It is a “mutual benefit”, as both
organisms get benefit from association from each other. For instance, E. coli
synthesize and secrete vitamin K and B12 which is profitable for host. In return,
E. coli gets warm & nutrient and moist rich environment for its better
In this type of association, one organism
gets benefit while the other is neither benefited nor harmed. Bacteria have no
commensalism relationships with human beings. If bacteria present in our body
or on the body, they play a role which is either beneficial (antagonism of
microbes) or harmful.
coli is present in the digestive tract of human and other organisms
where it causes no harm and consequently no disease. But when it enters into
the urogenital tract of organisms, it may be harmful (pathogenic).
aureus is a bacterium of nose microflora found in the upper portion of
respiratory tract. If it gains entry into the cells by any wound or bleeding or
burn it becomes harmful may be pathogenic. (https://www.slideshare.net/amanullah9803150/microbial-floraofthehumanbody)
of the Microflora
The Microflora exhibit certain characteristics. These are:
The microflora are also known as Microbiota and are not typical
disease causing micro-organisms found in and on healthy individuals.
The microflora are extremely abundant in terms of sheer numbers.
For instance, an ordinary human has approximately 1013 body cells and 1014
Microflora are found more often than not on the skin, eyes,
nose, oral fissure as well as on the throat and lower parts of the urethra and
the large intestine
Benefits of microflora:
Preventing colonization by microbial anatgonism competing
with nutrients and space and produce toxic condition or environmental condition
to keep harmful pathogens away (acidity in vagina).
Develop immune system by keeping it active by providing
are essential for us to survive.
gain their food from the stuff in our pie hole.
of bacteria are worn out by poisons or antibiotics, they must be replaced
otherwise we would die ultimately. (https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-benefits-of-normal-flora)
They provide a host
defence mechanism by taking control on ecological niches for bacteria, e.g. the intestinal villi.
and excrete various compounds like vitamin B12 and vitamin K in the intestine
which are important nutrients for host.
The oral microflora
assist in immunity through inducing low level of circulating and secretory antibiotics
that kill pathogens. In other words, they enhance body’s immunity.
The oral bacterial
flora kill nonindigenous species by producing inhibitory fatty acids, peroxides
and bacteriocins (it is a protein and bacreria produce it, it helps in stamping
and killing microbes). (https://www.slideshare.net/amanullah9803150/microbial-floraofthehumanbody)
help to digest food as they break down foodstuffs that are normally
indigestible by the host into forms that are easily digestible by the hosts.
protects the host from infection by harmful
antibacterial substances as by product of metabolism, so they have a local
antibiotic effect which retard the attack of invaders on host.
stimulate an immunological response (an antibody-mediated immune response) as
they act as antigens in the human body. (https://www.ukessays.com/essays/biology/normal-flora-and-their-benefits.php)
Disadvantages of microflora:
is harmful when overgrown (i.e. use of antibiotics) and misplaced (i.e. urinary
tract flora may placed with facel flora). (https://quizlet.com/7646560/normal-flora-flash-cards/)
Microflora may also
cause disease in following conditions:
If he change his
anatomical location as usual. (https://www.slideshare.net/amanullah9803150/microbial-floraofthehumanbody)
There are few limitations of microflora to the human body as
well. For example, most of the microflora are pathogens and may cause
infectious diseases. Similarly, if microflora take control on certain tissues,
they can cause infection as well as destruction. Likewise, the Microbe may
absorb some of the hosts nutrients due to competition, leading to the
development of bacterial antibiotic resistance in humans. (https://www.ukessays.com/essays/biology/normal-flora-and-their-benefits.php)