There are many locks put in place in buildings, this type of
security is put in place so that un authorised people are unable to access data
from the Room that is locked.
Also this type of security is very useful as if someone
tries to break it then there will be sound that will alert people around that
room, then they might call the security or they may try to stop you.
Having a visitors pass is a very useful security that is put
in place, so that only the people with this pass may be able to enter
restricted areas which are very well protected, this also means that the
visitors pass acts as the key for the user, so they can access the places that
the key can open.
Also this type of security is very good as it stops people
without identification entering some parts of the building.
Sign in and sign out systems are very useful for people who
have forgotten their identification cards, this means the system will be able
to log the personal entering and exit times for each employee. Another
advantage of having sign in and sign out systems is that after the person has
signed in the guards give them a key with allows the person to access some
parts of the building only.
Another advantage of having this system is that once the
user has left and the key is not returned to the office the key is disabled so
that if they come back after then the key wont work, they will have to get a
Having retinal scans is very useful as not many people have
the same unique retina scans. So the retina scans will act as an identification
card for the user. Also a advantage for the Retinal scans is that they don’t
need to be remembered as the eyes are always attached to your body. This scan
will act as a key for the user.
The picture on the right shows an iris scan. Iris scans
allow the user to wear their glasses while the device is scanning their eyes.
Fingerprint recognition is a very useful method of security
as each fingerprint is different, also this keeps a track of who enters the
building or leaves the building. Fingerprint scans can be used as a sign in and
sign out system as the system will have all the details for a person through
Another advantage of having fingerprint recognition is that
there has never been two similar fingerprint identification.
There are many methods of recording fingerprint, all of this
methods require a fingerprint scanner. The watery solution in the ridges of our
fingers allow detection and fingerprint scanners to operate.
Some scanners use a rapid laser to detect the ridges in our
finger, other scanners have an electro-statistically sensitive pad which
detects the current that is formed from the quantity of water in our hand.
Voice recognition is a very useful and effective security
method. It compares the person’s voice to a voiceprint that is stored on a file
in the system.
This system can be used as a key to entering the building or
access private areas in the building. This type of security is also used in
authentication to enter a secured place
Having security guards in a building is a very effective and
it is a good method of security.
Having security prevents unauthorised people to access
restricted areas, security guards is a good method of keeping watch through the
control room, as there is a security guard looking through the CCTV camera all
the time so he can instantly report anything suspicious.
Any data that is transmitted using electromagnetic or radio
transmission is open to being remotely controlled or monitored. Data that is
transmitted via a copper cable emits a magnetic field, which can be accessed
from other people, to prevent this the cable is shielded in layers, there are 3
layers, the first layer is called Dielectric insulator, the second layer is
called a metallic shield, and the third layer is called the plastic jacket.
Having layers to shield the cable is a very effective way of
stopping a magnetic field from being emitted.
Firewall configurations is a software that limits access to
the user’s computer and network. This makes sure that the user is not accessing
private data files of companies.
The reason for having firewalls is to block unauthorised
access from entering the network. For example firewalls prevent access from
unwanted users from accessing a company’s intranet blocking them from gaining
the company’s information, and also provide protection from malicious
threats. More than one firewall can be
installed in a company, as it offers more security.
Virus checking software also known as ‘Anti-virus’ it can
detect the presence of a virus within a computer in another word, It runs all
the time on your computer and looks for activity which might have been caused
by a virus and if any threats are detected, it will try to neutralise any
malicious software. When you connect to the internet, the program downloads
information about any new threats to keep up to date.
All of this usually happens without you being aware of it
but most antivirus programs, also allow you to carry out a full scan of your
computer from time to time to see if there are any hidden threats lurking in
files stored in your folders.
For example in eco-friendly there is chances of losing or
damaging information e.g. customer details if virus gets into eco-friendly
system. So an anti-virus can help keep eco-friendly from the attack of virus.
A VPN stands for ‘virtual private network’ it allows the
user to have a strong and secured connection to a network over the internet.
VPN can be used to stop unknown people from accessing your internet.
In an organisation, VPN is frequently used as the
organisation does not want the public to find out what is stored on their
network. VPN is used to keep data secured by not allowing unknown users to
access the network or tracking the network of that organisation.
An intruder detection system (IDS) is a software security
designed to automatically alert administrators. Thus, it checks all inputs and
output network activity and finds suspicious patterns and when someone is
trying to break into an information system through malicious activities the
organisation is alerted straight away so they can take action against the
Then the team will then try to track down to find the individual who was trying
to take part in malicious activity or is trying to mess around with the
IDS is used to keep data secured as it tracks intruders who
are trying to access the data or who are trying to corrupt the data.
A password is a word that only the user/organisation knows,
this password is kept hidden from strangers. Passwords are normally word that
the user is very familiar with, users use passwords to access data in
Using passwords in an organisation would have to be suitable
and secure, and would have to go by a policy going by the fact that passwords should not be written
down, should be changed periodically (every 90 days), to as little as every
seven days, strong passwords must be used. Also passwords should be absolutely
random or even nonsense, but should be memorable to the person able to use the
Levels of access to data is used in an organisation. This
makes sure that the amount of data that the administrator has access to is not
Network systems and servers provide control over the levels
of access to data. This can be by controlling certain users’ access to files
and data on a network, for example only users who have certain privileges can
be able to either view information, change and update information, or to be
able to create new files, folders or data sets.
Software updating ensures that your system is safe from
likely faults and vulnerabilities, making sure that the system is safe from
hackers, and by also preventing them from accessing the network. This process
can be automatic, keeping users up to date on how their system is.
An audit log is a document that records an event in an IT
system. This log also records what resources were accessed. Audit logs entries
usually records the destination, source addresses and the user’s login
Having an audit log makes sure that the system has the
identity of every user that has entered the data base. So when issues occur the
administrator can track the causes by checking the audit log. Audit logs can be
used on the monitoring systems so the alarms can be placed in a system, this
makes sure that if there is something suspicious in the log or system then the
alarms can inform the administrator about the activity.
A diskless network is a computer without a CD or DVD drive,
the computer does not have any ports that can allow access to an external hard
drive such as USB ports or Floppy disk drives. This computer needs to connect
to the server to access the data. In most diskless networks the BIOS has to be
configured properly so a person cannot plug in or add new devices.
This is a very good way of having data secured as many
hardware parts of a computer are being stolen so when a computer which has
diskless network is stolen the thief cannot gain access to that data as it is
not from the computer
On WAN (Wide Area Networks) systems, data may be sent across
a public communications line. To improve trust, each device completes a
challenge, which may be random and carries a username and password, to
establish the identity of the other device. This is know as CHAP ( Challenge
Handshake Authentication Protocol).
This makes sure that the data is kept secured as the Devices
will carry a username and password so the data is not accessed by any other
device without the username and password entered.
Data encryption is when a piece of data, such as Text,
Images and media, is converted into random letters and numbers, this makes sure
that no user can understand the information without the Decryption Key.
Data encryption is used on any type of data, this includes
number texts and binary data. Any type of data can be encrypted.
Caesar cipher is a simple method of encryption, this is when
the data is shifted. So if the shift is 4 and the data that is being
transferred is the word “Hello” then the system will encrypt the data into a
random lettered word, the Letter “H” will change to the letter “L” and so on,
all the letters will shift by 4 letters. So the final encrypted word will be
The Letter H will change to L
The Letter E will change to I
The Letter L will change to P
The Letter L will change to P
The Letter O will change to S
Public/private keys are keys that are related. The public
key can be shared among employees, friends, and many people, and is used to
encrypt data. The private key on the other hand can decrypt the data and is
kept as a secret, so the data is decrypted by only the person that the data is
Call Backs are used on dial up systems where network
administrators can dial into a network and the network device will call them
back. Carries a username and password to ensure that the channel is secure. It
uses CHAP which stands for Challenge handshake authentication protocol.
Use of backups is also extremely important in case the
information gets corrupted or accidentally deleted. 2 copies of the backup
should be taken, one to leave in the building or the network/server for easy
access if information is needed quickly. And one to be kept in a backup
organisation where it is out of the organisation.
so in case there is a fire or something similar which will
cause the original and the backup copy kept in the server/organisation to be
destroyed, the other back up can be recovered to save the information.
There are many back up measures put in place around a
company, to recover from a disaster.
All of these measures include whole system back ups, this is
basically a mirror image of the data(and the servers). So if system fails or a
disaster occurs and the entire system is damaged, then the back ups can be used
to replace the data.
This is very useful as it is easily accessed in case of an
emergency or in case of a disaster. Also the good part of having a back up
system is that the back up copy can be accessed throughout multiple systems.
An incremental backup is a useful backup system as it backs
up and stores files that have been recently modified from the previous full
A differential backup is a backup system that proceeds when
full backup is done, and saves the files that have been changed since then.
Incremental back ups:
is a fast way of backing up
the user to frequently backup
restoration time of the files is shorter than the differential backups.
carries out a full system back up, this includes previous versions of all the
files and the newly edited files
is a fast way of backing up data
Incremental back ups:
does not carry out a full back up, it backs up the files that have been edited
Differential back ups:
up a large amount of space on the hard drive as the entire system is being
restoration time of the files is longer than incremental back ups.
Whole system replacement is done when you have tried
everything to save the data but the data could not be saved, by having a full system replacement you will
have to start from the scratch. Whole system replacement should be used as a
last resort, when everything else has failed.
This is used as a last resort as it makes the company to
start again, this is only used if any sort of data of that company is unable to
using whole system replacement you know that all the problems, viruses and bugs
are gone from your system as you are
starting from scratch.
You have start from scratch if you do the whole
You have lost your entire database, this
includes the customers’ details and everything else
By doing a whole system replacement your
company’s website is down, so no customer can use it as the entire network is
Tier 0: No off site
data, this is where the data is unsafe. If there is a power surge
this will be the end of all the companies data.
Tier 1: Data backup
with no “dark site”. This is where the backups are taken, but
there is no replacement location if the system fails.
Tier 2: Data backup
with a “dark site”. This is where the copies of the data
are taken, but there is a centre available to transfer data
Tier 3: Electronic
vaulting. Mirrored copies of the system are continuously maintained.
Tier 4: Point-in-time
copies. Remote copies of the data are the same as local data.
Tier 5: Transaction integrity.
The system ensures both copies are in tune with each other.
Tier 6: Zero or
near-Zero data loss. For very fast systems, where a sudden fault, could
result in some minor transnational data loss
Tier 7: Highly
automated, business-integrated solution. Now the system will do
all the thinking for you.
Brief explanation of the tiers
0: this is when a company has no plan put in place for a disaster
1: this is when a back up is taken but it is placed in the company itself so if
a disaster destroys the entire site the back up would be lost
2: this is where the back up of a company is taken and is placed in a different
company so it can be recovered in case of a disaster
3: this is where the mirrored copies of the system is regularly checked and
updated so new data of the company can be backed up
4: A point in time copy is where data is copied as a snapshot. This captures
the data as one complete file. The use of hard drives is common in this tier
5: the system makes sure that both the backed up data and the system are
exactly the same so there is no loss of data when there is a disaster
6: Disaster recovery arrangements in this tier keeps up the highest levels of
accurate company data (information being up to date).
7: in this tier the system will do all the work, this means that there is no
human error caused in the system and when backing up the data, so when the data
is being backed up this tier makes sure that there are no data missed in the
shows all the possible outcomes after a disaster
allows the user to know what tier his/her company is in and how he can improve
the disaster recovery policy
does not clearly tell the user what to do from moving from 1 tier to the other
disaster recovery policy shows what action is required to be taken in the event
of human-based, or natural based disaster.
or deliberate disruption
and/or equipment failures
of key personnel
disaster recovery policy may include procedures for data relocation, use of
alternative sites, the hiring of additional personnel and equipment and will be
supported by appropriate levels of insurance to fund the immediate recovery
policies provide funding for the company if their data is lost in any of the
disasters stated in the policy
policies will not be able to do anything if the disaster caused is not stated
in the policies, they may not even be able to help you