Thepurpose of the chapter is to present the literature relevant to the topic.
Theimportance of the topic from an international perspective is presented. Thefindings from other research studies are shared. The chapter highlights the keyconcepts that are specific, relevant or related to illegal dumping. Theconcepts are defined in order to give them meaning in the context of thisstudy. The defining of concepts is followed by literature review. Literaturereview focuses on studies of similar nature and what they have revealed aboutillegal dumping. Thehypothesis of the study reads as “Illegal dumping is a consequence of inadequate waste management education,awareness and lack of policy enforcement by relevant authorities”. Theopening statement of national policy on provision of basic refuse removal toindigent households acknowledges the shortcomings in the space of solid servicedelivery.
It highlights that that thesystem has had numerous challenges, https://cer.org.za/wp-. One canattest to this by observations on the increased number of illegal dumping indifferent towns. Theconcept of illegal dumping is related to solid waste management.
Waste can bedefined as “material, substance or product that the owner no longer wantsat a given place and time”(Londan 2011:70). The concept of domestic solidwaste is critical in the study because the focus is primarily on a site withina village where a lot of dumping is happening. There is about three dumpingsites in a radius of a kilometre. The source of waste under concern issuspected to be coming from surrounding households. This narrows the focus to domesticsolid waste management practices. Illegaldumping in this study refers to the dumping of domestic waste or refuse on the site that is not designatedfor this purpose by the local or provincial authority.
The formal definition ofillegal dumping is “discarding waste in an improper or illegal manner, where itdoesn’t belong and/or where environmental damage is likely because of theimproper disposal”. (http://www.westmorelandcleanways.org). Wastemanagement, at a broader level falls within the literature of sustainabledevelopment. The issue of environment and way human interacts with it was firstregistered as a global concern in 1972 at the United Nations Conference on theHuman Environment held in Stockholm, Treurnicht, (2011:416).
One of the outcomes of the conference was theadoption of the declaration on human environment. The declaration identified principles that are key to thehuman environment e.g. principle number two speaks about the natural resources(air, water, flora, fauna) and emphasise that they must be well managed, (http://www.un-documents.net/aconf48-14r1.
pdf.)whereas principle number six and seven touch on pollution. The twoprinciples discourages man made pollution actions on the oceans/marine resources and other forms of life. Thestudy of illegal dumping practices can be described as form of environmentalpollution which is directed to land tobe precise.
According to the Bruntland Commission,sustainable development is defined as ” development that meets the needsof the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meettheir own needs” (Treurnicht 2011:414). The definition of sustainabledevelopment as a concept can be further understood when the elements or aspectsof sustainable development are brought to light. The aspects of sustainabledevelopment are social, economic,cultural, political, geographical and ecological, Treurnicht (2011:414). Furthermore,the aspects of social, economic/financial and environmental sustainability areflagged out as the most profound for development. In SA, definition ofsustainable development is understood to mean “development that does notuse up resources more quickly than they are replaced by natural processes ornew technology” (Treurnicht 2011:415). Drawingfrom a study of illegal dumping by Troschinet& Mihelcic, (2009) There are 12 factors that influence waste managementsuccess particularly sustainable recycling.
The 12 elements identified by Troshchinet et al (2009:922) aregovernment policy, government finances, waste characterization, wastecollection and segregation, household education, household economics, MunicipalSolid Waste Management administration (MSWM), MSWM personnel education, MSWMplan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, andland availability. The study conducted touched on elements on governmentpolicy, waste collection and household education. Withinthe SA context, there is a sound legislative framework that guides solid wastemanagement and the environmental management. The over-arching act will be The environmentalmanagement act: waste act 59 of 2008 (Republic of SA) states that the actexists in order to makes provisions for management of waste. Another purpose ofthis act is to prevent pollution and environmental degradation as well as toprovide for compliance and enforcement amongst other things. The NationalPolicy on Provision of Basic Refuse Removal to Indigent Households (BRR),Government Notice Notice34385, 22 (June 2011) makes reference Waste Act. It states that this act compelsmunicipalities to put in place Integrated Waste Management Plans (IWMPs).
Oneof the key concepts that resulted fromthe over-arching policy (59 of 2008, Republic of SA) is Sustainable wastemanagement. This concept is implemented through the development of anIntegrated waste management plan at a local government level. Each municipality is required to have anintegrated waste management plan. The latter consolidates different strategiesof waste management. The strategies of waste management are better defined byhierarchy of waste management. The hierarchy is made up of four components i.
e. Reduce (minimise the amount of wasteproduced), Re-use ( Use materials more than once) Recycling (use materials morethan once) therefore concerned with sorting, processing, and transportation ofsolid waste materials, products or containers for the purpose of remanufactureor reused and Disposal which is perceived as the worst or less desired optionfor waste disposal. The study will use the hierarchy to reveal which of thewaste management strategies are being employed in the community under study. Theanalysis of solid waste management strategies implemented in the village underconcern with be scrutinised within the parameters of guiding principles andconcepts of solid waste management. An example will be the principles outlinedin the sustainable development conceptwhere it is stated that Sustainable development requires that the generation ofwaste is avoided, or where it cannot be avoided, that it is reduced, re-used,recycled or recovered and only as a last resort treated and safely disposed (https://cer.org.za/wp).
It is for this reasonthat hierachy of waste management will be used as a theoretical framework forthe study. Below are images that depicts waste management hierachy, thedifference between figure one and figure 2 is that one provides descriptionsabout each waste management strategy.