The There are many researches on palm vein, wrist

The appropriate
location or detection of vein vessels plays important role in biometrics like
human identification, matching, in the field of forensic and in medical
applications. Other biometrics features having particular disadvantages which
will not bother if we go for vein detection which having its unique features.
Identification of vein vessels is mandatory in medical for needle infusion in
the patients. Sometimes many of doctors or nurses find difficult to locate vein
vessels so it is very complicated for needle infusion in first experiment and
if it goes wrong then it can cause Trauma, Hematoma, cuts on the bones,
Allergic reactions, Swell in the skin. There are many researches on palm vein,
wrist vein, dorsal vein, Finger vein, forearm vein etc. The framework for all
types of mentioned vein recognition is based on authentication, more or less
all having with same aim to detect vein in respective ROI. So system can be
developed which can detect veins off all the mentioned types on the body by
using vein detection system with infrared camera. Camera will take a real time
video with help of infrared rays and every vein on skin will give different contrast,
hence it will be easier to identify.



Keywords— Vein location, Infrared, Skin anatomy, Real time.

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Vein pattern recognition has been emerging technique in the field of
biometric. Vein pattern recognition technique has it’s positives against other technologies. It can
successfully use in various other applications like field of forensic, human
recognition & medical applications such as bruises & burns, intravenous
injection, among children, blood transfusions, geriatrics, enter medications or
fluids in body. The
upcoming biometric techniques include vein detection pattern, DNA and body odor
recognition. Vein recognition also known as vascular biometrics and sub dermal
nature of vein, vascular biometric are consider to be highly secure modality,
whereas other types of biometrics had proven vulnerable to prevention of
attacks, but vein patterns are virtually unspoofable.


The technique of vein detection is based on identification of the
subcutaneous vein patterns in individuals. For doctors or nurses, the process
of finding the location of vein vessels is very important to help the patients.
Generally it is easier to find veins in young generation persons, but in
elderly persons it if difficult to find the veins only in visible light. The advantage
of identifying vein is that it does not require the direct contact with the device
and speed of operation is also very high. Vein detection is very important for person
identification, matching, recognition, in medical applications it is mandatory,
and it plays very important role in medical field. The appropriate
location or identification of vein vessels is mandatory for needle infusion in
the patients.


Sometimes it is very complicated to insert needle
in the first experiment because many of doctors or nurses find difficult to
locate vein vessels. For patients who suffer from heart disease it is important
to detect veins to provide them intravenous drugs immediately so that it will
help to dissolve clot. Number of trials for needle infusion cause wasting of
time and also it is uncomfortable for patients. For humans it is extremely
important to determine the accurate location of the various vein vessels
because if injecting a needle went wrong then person may suffer badly. While
injecting needle if any errors occurs then it may affects badly on patients
health. Therefor it is need to develop system which will give accuracy in
detecting the veins which contributes for curing patients.


Vein pattern recognition gives competition to most of the traditional
methods. It has several advantages corresponds to unique, portable, and
inherent properties compared to other biometrics features, like fingerprint,
retina, voice and face. Fingerprint scanner requires contact with the scanner
and it may possible that pattern can be weak because of other problems like
person age, dryness, disease etc. Retinal scanner is not popular because of its
intrusive nature also it is difficult for installation. Facial recognition has
a disadvantage that it cannot capture without persons knowledge, consent.
Disadvantage of voice recognition is voice changes with different moods,
illness and weakness so, it may cause problem while authentication. To ignore
all above problems we can go with the vein recognition because of its unique
properties those are – high anti counterfeit performance, high recognition
performance, easy acceptability.


In medical field to deal with the problems of
needle infusion, a single tool for identifying the veins are required which
will clearly shows the veins. In proposed system for vein detection   infrared lights is used because vein patterns
are not easily observable in visible light. Infrared lights will emit to the
body of patients. The reason why near infrared light is used is because the
light is absorb more strongly by human blood than the surrounding tissues. The
advantageous features of near infrared imaging are it can easily penetrate up
to 3mm into the tissue. When the light emits on the body, camera is set on the
part of the body where we want to detect the veins of that patient. These
results to veins will look darker than the other tissues. The aim is to detect
the veins only not arteries and infrared light absorption in blood vessels
depends on the oxidized level, that is deoxygenated blood absorb more light
than oxygenated blood.

This helps in detecting required veins accurately
and reducing the chances of faulty needle injecting by the doctor or nurse to
the patients. 


The appropriate location or detection of vein vessels gives
large contribution in biometrics like human identification, matching, in the
field of forensic and in medical applications. Other biometrics features having
several disadvantages which will not bother if we go for vein detection which
having its unique features. The appropriate location of veins plays very
important role in medical application for needle infusion for the purpose of
drug or medications delivery in patients.


The biometric gives a normalized,
efficient and discriminating representation of feature. There are various types
of biometric recognition.


print recognition

Pattern of finger print are
unique to each person. Even twins also have different finger print patterns.
This technique has some disadvantage also. Disadvantages of this system are age
of user, dryness and wetness of finger, temporary or permanent cuts on figure
can affect the performance of system because all this above things effect on
pattern hence give a poor pattern for recognition. User may go through the difficulties
in authentication process.



There are various types of facial
scan those are by capturing an image of face by using cameras or by using
infrared patterns of facial heat emission. Facial recognition generally used
for identification instead of verification. It includes eyes, nose, lips, and
so on. The advantage of this technique is that it does not require touch of any
device. The disadvantage of this technique is that the quality of capture image
depends on lightening, background, and angle of camera. And another
disadvantage is appearance of person changes time by time.


 Iris Recognition

The iris is a color portion of
eye which surrounds the pupil and this portion of eye is used for recognition.
The iris pattern can be obtained through the video based images. This
technology can be used for identification and verification both. Advantage of
this recognition system is iris pattern does not change throughout the life and
it has smallest acceptance rate. But the position head and eye is very
important to get accurate results. And people should not move their head during
data acquisition. It requires a very high resolution of captured images because
iris is very small portion of eye.


Voice Recognition

This recognition uses different features of acoustics which
are different in individuals. There are various vocal qualities like frequency,
short time spectrum of dialogue and spectrograms and these are used for voice
recognition. In these type of system user selects the expression and repeat it
during identification and verification. This reduces the risk of guessing the
same phrase and entering into system. 
But noise and echoes can reduce the quality and accuracy of system.
Another disadvantage of this system is voice changes illness or in different
moods and it can cause authentication problem.


Insertion of
intravenous catheters plays an important role in any surgery. Physicians face
the major problem for accessing vein for IV drug delivery or taking blood
sample for test. It is important for children’s, adults, and critical patients.
Because of poor visibilities it may possible that unnecessary puncturing of
vein can be happen. And this may results in bruise and permanently damage of
veins. This system give an approach for IR vein detection system and it helps
in identifying veins on the back side of hand. IR LED ring is used for infrared
radiation. Smartphone camera is used to capture the image and its preprocessing
can be done by using MATLAB. Noise removal filter and adaptive histogram
equalization technique is used to enhance the image. This system only
implements the acquisition and segmentation of image 3.


Vein detection considered as one of latest biomedical
techniques. Different difficulties found in design and implementation of device
regarding to image processing algorithms and lighting system at low price. Specialists
confront the issue while distinguishing veins for intra-venous medication
conveyance. A few issues can be happens those are wounds, rashes, blood clump.
Therefor framework needs to create which will distinguish non-obtrusive
subcutaneous veins. So modified webcam is utilized for catching vein pictures
and PC vision is utilized for processing. This framework can be utilized for
treatment of varicose veins, profound vein thrombosis and vascular sicknesses. This
system can be used for treatment of varicose veins, deep vein thrombosis and
vascular ailments. This system has only worked on acquisition and segmentation
and it does not belong to IR imaging which is stationary it encounters a lot of
artifacts 6.


Utilizing infrared radiation for
biometric applications is new and energizing idea that convey top of the line
applications in various fields including security and medication. While a
couple of devices have just been actualized, there is a solid requirement of
low cost sensing device. This exploration has been centered around a simple to
utilize, cost effective vein design recognition framework that utilizations
near infrared  radiation yet the
calculations and the equipment lighting and detecting head can effectively be
utilized as a part of different applications in the field of legal sciences,
human acknowledgment or in medicinal applications 3-9


intravenous medication and withdrawal of blood the intravenous access and
surgical perforation are invasive procedure in medical field every day. The
numbers of process which corresponds to vein detection are blood draws,
peripheral catheter insertion, intravenous therapies, etc. For intravenous drug
delivery and other medical situation doctor suffers from difficulty. Therefor
device which can clearly show vein is needed to develop. The system relate to
development of non-invasive subcutaneous vein detection. This system uses a CCD
camera for capturing image and compute software module. This system works on
video but under the particular ideal light conditions and therefor it needs
external adjustment or automatic software calibration. USB cable restrict
transfer frame rate. This system is able to visualise and detect veins from
anterior side of forearm 2.


IR radiations for biometrics provide a
promising result in the field of security and biometrics applications. The use
of vein pattern for person identification is new approach and it uses a vein
network present under the skin. The vein pattern is unique feature in each
individual. The features of veins that is uniqueness and stability can be in
biometrics for identification of person. The method is to detect the veins
using an IR illumination then different techniques is used for enhancement of
vein image for identification of person. This work consists of IR vein
detection and matching of systems for identification of persons. The novel
scheme approach is used which capture image by an infrared illumination. This
system is used to detect veins on palm dorsal surface and it is limited to NIR
images and implementation in MATLAB 1.


III.     Proposed



The block diagram of proposed method for vein
detection is as shown in figure.1. In proposed framework image is taken and region
of interest is selected from input image. The various image enhancement
techniques are available to improve the quality of image. Noise removal filter
are used to remove noise from input image. Adaptive thresholding and
morphological operations are used. Morphological operations reduce the unwanted noise from an image. Segmentation process is used for
image extraction.


Image capturing and Region
of interest

is captured and interested region of interest is taken and converted to gray
scale image 


Image enhancement

improve the quality of image this image enhancement technique is used. There is
possibility of noise in input image so to remove noise from image different
filters can be used. In this system median filter is used improve quality of


input image taken from human body have low contrast and to improve this
contrast adaptive histogram equalization is used.


Adaptive thresholding

apply single threshold on complete image intensity distribution and background pixels
should be sufficiently distinct. Adaptive threshold convert gray scale image into a binary image.



open operations are used to remove noise from an image and it is used to estimate
image background. This process is helpful for selecting particular area.


morphological operations interested region will be selected. Output of this
will be a detected vein image which can be used for application.