About 25,000 people die every twenty-four hours harmonizing to the United Nations study ( www.unicef.org ) due to hunger, this happens because of addition in nutrient monetary values ensuing in at least one billion people around the universe agony. The UN and the Food and Agricultural Organization ( FAO ) are working really hard to come up with the solutions to the planetary nutrient scarceness and high nutrient monetary values, which started the beginning of mid- 2008. The under investing in the agribusiness sector has caused a soundless crisis, which was worsened by the creative activity of a flourishing bio-fuel industry in which nutrient harvests are used for fuel alternatively of as nutrient for feeding ( FAO 2008 ).
In add-on, the recent planetary fiscal crisis impacting the economic systems of the states, led to loss of occupation to 1000000s of people around the universe therefore intensifying poorness. The World Food Acme 2009 ( WFS ) estimated that “ the figure of hungry people could increase by a farther 100 million in 2009 and go through the one billion grade ”. The FAO manager Diouf showed a concern on the issue by stating the undermentioned words:
“ The soundless hungriness crisis impacting one sixth of all of humanity poses a serious hazard for universe peace and security. We desperately need to hammer a wide consensus on the sum and rapid obliteration of hungriness in the universe. “ ( www.fao.org )
The universe is faced with all the challenges which cut down the degree of entree to nutrient by all go forthing many people with hungriness. The World Health Organization ( WHO ) estimates, one tierce of the population is good fed, and one tierce is hungering while the staying one tierce of the population is under-fed. With these statistics it shows that there is non adequate nutrient for everyone in the universe. The planetary nutrient insecurity state of affairs has worsened and continues to present a menace for humanity. With the addition in nutrient monetary values and transit costs staying high in developing states, the figure of people enduring from hungriness has been increasing quickly in recent old ages ( FAO 2009 ). This addition in nutrient insecurity has negative effects on gender equality and instruction, and it undermines the attempts of the Millennium Development Goals ( MDG ).
Aims and range of the survey
Poverty estimations indicate that 30.3 per centum of the population in Botswana is below the poorness line ( CSO HIES Report 2002 ), that is, about tierce of the population. Though Botswana ‘s poorness rate declined from 59 per centum to 47 per centum in 1985 and 1994 severally, there is still grounds of high poorness as indicated by the study. In 2002/3, the national income poorness was estimated to be 33 per centum and later stood at 30.2 per centum in 2005/06.
The recent FAO ( 2009 ) statistics indicates that about 500,000 people in Botswana are nutrient insecure chiefly because they do non hold entree to quality nutrient. For an import dependent state like Botswana, addition in monetary values due to high transit costs and usage of nutrient harvests for bio-fuels consequences in a diminution of the state ‘s import capacity ( Steven 2000 ).
With macroeconomic policies that have proven to be efficient, competitory and sustainable in past old ages ( BOB Annual Report 2008 ), the consequences from the FAO study and statistics of poorness rates in Botswana informs this treatment on what could be grounds taking to high rates of nutrient insecurity in Botswana. The paper will discourse how policies and schemes on nutrient security can be implemented to help Botswana to accomplish her intended ends of cut downing poorness and the degree of nutrient insecurity, the effectivity of the policies that have been put in topographic point ; the impact of the clime conditions on the nutrient production and the effects of trade releases.
Management of natural resources and good nidation of agricultural policies are the most of import determiners of nutrient supply. Furthermore, the efficient support of markets, from the authorities have the capacity to better the public presentation of appropriate functions each sector either the private sector or authorities in order to help in controling neglecting policies is of import ( Robinson 1997 ). These issues will be discussed in item to analyze the state of affairs in Botswana.
Chapter 2: FOOD SECURITY
There are assorted conceptual development of believing on how to specify nutrient security, different authors have differing definitions. Whenever the rubric is introduced in the survey, it is of import to look closely to happen an expressed definition because of its strength. Food security is a widely debated subject, given that it affects people across the Earth. Diseases, dearth, wars are the major subscribers to nutrient insecurity particularly in the bomber Saharan African continent ( Lado 2001 )
The World Bank ( 1986 ) defined nutrient security as “ lasting entree to sufficient nutrient by all people at all times for an active, productive and healthy life ”, and this definition together with the FAO definition are widely accepted by establishments and administrations ( Stevens 2000 ). The FAO ( 1998 ) defines nutrient security as “ the right of everyone to hold entree to safe and alimentary nutrient, consistent with the right to adequate nutrient and the cardinal right of everyone to be free from hungriness ”. Looking closely into the definitions, they seem to capture the most of import constituents of nutrient security which is the warrant ( handiness ) of holding entree ( handiness ) to adequate nutrient ( use ) at any given clip ( Stevens 2000 ). These three constituents will be discussed further in the following subdivision.
Furthermore, a state of affairs whereby people have the right to enough nutrient leads to a healthy and productive life, and this is determined by entree to and handiness of nutrient. Handiness to nutrient has a close relationship to economic growing and poorness. The hapless normally do non hold plenty agencies to derive entree to nutrient in the needed measures ( Alversen 1997 ). Habbard ( 1995 ) and Lado ( 2001 ) besides provide a similar definition, these definitions indicates that people should be confident that nutrient will ever be accessible easy by holding the economic right in order to keep a healthy position.
There are no satisfactory definitions of nutrient security, hence there are some other alternate ways of depicting it. Some research workers use footings such as nutrient crisis, dearth, and nutrient insecurity to come up with suited definition ( Sen 1981 ). FAO defines nutrient insecurity as a state of affairs whereby people do non hold equal physical, societal or economic entree to nutrient.
In order to be able to specify nutrient security, it is prudent to distinguish between the family degree and the national degree of nutrient security. Kotze ( 2000 ) explains household degree as holding plenty nutrient to guarantee a minimal consumption for all members of the family, while at the national degree nutrient insecurity exist because the state ‘s nutrient production and trade entitlements becomes debatable. If the state ‘s production degree becomes deficient, it jeopardizes entree to nutrient by all, and besides leads to inadequate supplies.
In decision, nutrient security can be defined as entree to physical and economic agencies by all groups of people at all times in order to run into their dietetic demand and nutrient penchants for an active and healthy life.
History of nutrient security
Food security has been in the public oculus for many decennaries. The illustration provided by Tannehill ( 1988 ) of Julius Caesar battle with the gyrating cost of nutrient subsidies in ancient Rome shows the historic tendency of involvements in the development thought of nutrient security. The FAO study indicates that the nutrient security construct started in the 1970 ‘s at a planetary nutrient crisis meeting that was discoursing the international nutrient jobs. The decrease in the nutrient supply and instability of monetary values on basic nutrients led to the World nutrient conference that was held in 1974 ( ODI 1997 ).
Maxwell ( 2001 ) characterized the history of believing about the nutrient security since the 1970 ‘s as a progressive conceptual development. Since the mid-1990s, more attacks based on the supports attacks have dominated the treatments of poorness and nutrient insecurity analysis. Since so, there have been more plans initiated to ship on contending the nutrient insecurity degree in the universe. Different attacks have been adopted to measure, proctor and map the manner forward of nutrient insecurity and exposure. A figure of theoretical accounts have been developed and adopted by development states in order to control the job of nutrient insecurity. In the instance of FAO for illustration, they came up with a plan of polishing the societal economic analysis by spread outing national nutrient handiness to include family and persons ( Devereux 2004 ).
Components of nutrient security
Food security can be determined by different constituents which are related to the definitions provided earlier. Stevens ( 2000 ) explains these constituents of nutrient security as the finding sets of factors. These constituents are handiness, handiness, use and exposure. All the signifier constituents conforms to the definition of the World Bank ( 1998 ) which is the warrant ( handiness ) of holding entree ( handiness ) to adequate nutrient ( use ) at any given clip by all people ( exposure ) ( Stevens 2000 ).
Causes of nutrient insecurity
Different surveies show that there are many causes of nutrient insecurity in the universe. In the Sub Sahara continent, the addition in nutrient insecurity is a consequence of hapless economic and societal conditions such as the population growing, natural catastrophes, and besides political perturbations plays a major function.
The southern Africa states most have a bad climatic status as reported by the United Nations Environment Programme ( UNEP 2005 ) and SADC monitoring unit. Furthermore, these hapless conditions conditions consequences in low production of Agricultural goods therefore impacting nutrient handiness and use.
Other subscribers to nutrient security will be discussed in deepness, and these are as follows: Natural catastrophes, Low production of agricultural trade goods, falling procedure of agricultural trade goods, Scarcity of land, Unequal distribution of nutrient and resources, Lack of buying power, Political instability and Population growing.
Chapter 3: FOOD SECURITY IN BOTSWANA
Brief description of Botswana
Botswana gained independency in 1966, during that clip, the economic system was dominated by the agribusiness sector which comprised of chiefly cattle agriculture, and it contributed approximately 40 per cent to the state ‘s GDP. Since so, the state enjoyed rapid economic transmutation which placed Botswana on top of the list of states in the African continent ( CSO statistical bulletin 2006 ). In 1968 the economic system of Botswana was chiefly dependent on minerals such as diamonds. The excavation sector now contributes about 51 per cent to the state ‘s GDP dominated by the diamonds, while the agricultural sector showed a diminution in portion of the GDP therefore lending about 4 per cent ( CSO 2006 ). The most drastic alterations in the economic system were seen in the 1990 ‘s due to the lessening in diamond monetary values globally, ( BOB 2008 ). These challenges resulted in the state to come up with other options, therefore decided to diversify the economic system by looking into other sectors such as touristry, agribusiness and fabric & A ; fabrication ( BIDPA ).
The IMF 2008 study indicates that economic growing has picked up particularly in the non excavation sector. Inflation has decreased stabilising the targeted scope by the cardinal bank, though rising prices hazards remain ( BOB 2008 ). Despite these structural economic alterations, nevertheless the state is faced with high incidence of poorness, unemployment, and HIV/AIDS ( IMF 2008 ).
The state depends to a great extent on imports chiefly from the adjacent state South Africa. Minerals and beef exports accounted for 85 and 4.4 per cent, severally, of entire exports in 2009 ( CSO monthly trade study 2009 ). On the other, 22.0 per centum and 13.3 per centum of machinery & A ; equipment and nutrient severally shows the highest figure of imports. Therefore, nutrient remains the most of import constituent of the import measure in order to run into the deficit in most basic nutrient trade goods that the state can non bring forth.
Due to its land lock place, Botswana ‘s economic development is vulnerable to external influences. The state is easy affected by the unstable political regional state of affairs in southern Africa.
The population of Botswana is about 1, 7 million., go forthing it in the 144th place amongst 193 states in the universe ( UN ). The population growing rate is estimated to be 2, 4 per cent per annum ( CSO, 2009 ). The population in Botswana is unevenly distributed, with 54 per cent of the population life in the urban countries and 46 per centum life in the rural countries ( CSO stats update 2009 ). The chief job taking to the slow growing of population is chiefly due to the high prevalence rate of HIV AIDSs which stood at 17.1 per centum in 2002.
Botswana started to follow nutrient security policies since the 1970s, and the policies were chiefly to advance self sufficiency. In 1991, a displacement in the policy from self sufficiency to nutrient security was seen whereby the authorities, Bankss and givers, husbandmans worked together in order to carry through the purposes of the policy ( BOB 1990 ).
In 1972, the Botswana Rural scheme was launched aimed to increase the degree of production and bettering the market installations in the rural countries and making rural employment chances. As portion of its National Development Plan ( NDP ), a policy known as Accelerated Rural Development Program ( ARDP ) was formulated in 1973. Later in 1975, another plan called The Tribal Grazing Land Policy ( TGLP ) aimed at keeping optimum balance between the people, land and farm animal ( GOB 1972 ). As a manner of demoing committedness to handiness of nutrient to the people, the authorities in 1985 approved a National Food Strategy Policy for preparation and execution of whole scope of nutrient security related plans ( www.moa.gov.bw ).
Furthermore, the authorities introduced other programmes in line with the NDPs such as The Arable Land Development Programme ( ALDEP ) which was aimed at helping small-scale husbandmans in increasing cereal production to advance autonomy. The little husbandmans were provided with subsidies by the authorities to purchase capital inputs such as farm implements, bill of exchange power and fence. Another plan called The Accelerated Rainfed Arable Program ( ARAP ) was launched. It provided husbandmans with short term aid to assist them retrieve from the drouth season. During the NDP 6, the authorities allocated more financess to the agricultural sector, subsectors such as cultivable agriculture was targeted. The Financial Aid Policy ( FAP ) programme was introduced to supply capital and labour grants to dairy agriculture, irrigated agribusiness, domestic fowl and little stock agriculture ( Sigwele, 1991 ).
Recently, the authorities reviewed all these policies to come up with new strategies that will increase the degree of nutrient production in the state. Certain restraints were identified such as non commitment by husbandmans after having financess from the authorities ( MOA 2006 ). The authorities besides provided husbandmans with preparation accomplishments and increased the budget on research and development to increase cognition on accomplishments of autonomy. However, with all the good enterprises by the authorities, the unfavourable clime conditions in Botswana made it hard for the authorities to accomplish the precedences of achieving self sufficiency plans due to periodic drouths ( MOA 2006 ).
Botswana has achieved singular progresss in footings of accomplishing good wellness position. In order to accomplish the ends of cut downing hapless households economically and socially, supplying entree to good wellness installations will assist to keep good wellness position among people. The authorities should supply wellness plans, medicine which everyone can entree for free in order to heighten productiveness and ego trust.
The authorities of Botswana has shown committedness to better its wellness position by increasing the allotment of resources to the wellness sector. In the past decennaries, we have seen the wellness sector given between 5 and 8 per centum portion. More infirmaries have been constructed in assorted small towns and proper preparation of forces has been a major investing of the authorities. ( www.gov.bw ).
Though Botswana is faced with challenges of high HIV prevalence rates and Malnutrition which has badly affected the economic and agricultural state of affairs of the state, there is has been a significant alteration in the wellness system, this is proven by the betterment of survival indexs ( CSO stats update 2009 ).
The authorities is seeking to apportion resources equally across the state through its execution of the NDP ‘s, but sometimes it fails to accomplish this end. Hence they may be some cases in which other parts get more developments than the others. This leads to most rural countries being disadvantaged and ensuing in more wellness installations it urban countries. Peoples in the urban countries are better off as they can easy entree the infirmary due to good transit systems. These differences may lend more to the inequality and family poorness in Botswana. When people are sick or malnutrition, they can non lend positively to the production of nutrient hence impacting the agribusiness sector.
Education is really of import to the development of humanity creates better chances an picks for persons. It empowers people to better their public assistance through increasing productiveness and offer possible opportunities to better criterions of life. If more people are non educated, they can non accommodate easy to new invention accomplishments and engineerings for agribusiness, hence haltering authorities programmes to back up food- ego sufficiency, economic accomplishment and societal prosperity.
Climate and Environmental impacts
Research has indicated that Botswana ‘s clime alteration projections are vulnerable to climate alteration, presenting a negative impact on the H2O resources and harvest production. As presently there is no policy which deals with the jobs caused by clime alteration, alternatively there are some recommendations that the authorities is seeking to implement from the assorted surveies that were conducted, a figure of national policies are already in topographic point reacting to climate alteration. The authorities has demonstrated a high degree of concern for environmental issues in the state.
The clime of Botswana is distinguished by both high temperatures and low rainfall. There is disparity in rainfall in assorted territories. The northern portion of the state normally gets more rain than the other parts of the state. The CSO study further indicates that the “ entire land country of Botswana is 581,730 square kilometres where most of the land is sterile due to the prevailing sandy dirts and the undependable and low rainfall ”. The land is differentiated into two types which are, The Kalahari Sandveld covering 77.2 per centum of the land country and Eastern Hardveld covering 22.8 per centum of the entire land country ( CSO 2008 ). The dirts around the state are relatively all hapless.
With its given conditions of conditions, Botswana does non hold suited country of bring forthing more nutrient because the physical and climatic features are non suited for nutrient production. This variableness is of critical importance to nutrient security and the population ‘s usage of the environment.
Water and Sanitation
Botswana is a H2O scarce state in southern Africa part due to its unfavourable conditions conditions. Statisticss shows that Botswana records high vaporization rates and low rainfall rates. There is concern about the low degrees of H2O which are non able to run into the demand of the turning population and the economic enlargement activities. The ingestion of H2O has increased over the old ages and yet on the other manus H2O degrees are worsening manfully due to drought seasons, particularly in urban countries.
The authorities of Botswana has adopted some imitative policies to supply and speed up sanitation services with the purpose of bettering wellness conditions of the populace. This was seen by an acceptance of the Waste Management Bill of 1998, which resulted in the constitution of the Sanitation and Waste direction Department ( www.gov.bw ).
Sanitation promotes self-respect, safety and privateness particularly for adult females and misss. Clean, safe lavatories and hand-washing installations at place and school aid increasing the kids ‘s ability to larn. Bettering wellness position helps persons to gain a better life. With effectual sanitation in topographic point, it means that the environment will be safer and cleaner for all activities therefore leting kids to play activities in clean environments. Families will besides be able to fix safe nutrient and maintain cleaner places. Having entree to clean H2O and good sanitation substructure leads to decrease in poorness and nutrient insecurity ( CSO Stats Update 2009 ). Harmonizing to CSO study, approximately 84 per cent of urban occupants have entree to safe H2O.
Government attack to nutrient security
The authorities of Botswana demonstrates the committedness to poorness relief through assorted plans. Botswana signed the United Nations planetary declarations for the betterment of human conditions and the Millennium Declaration of 2000. “ Botswana is besides a signer to the International Convention on the Rights of the Child ( 1990 ) ; the International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women ( 1979 ) ; the SADC Gender and Development Declaration ; the International Conference on Population and Development ( 1994 ) ; and the World Food Summit ( Rome 1996 ) ”.
The authorities of Botswana has managed to accommodate and implement good schemes towards poorness decrease and nutrient security through its constabularies to relieve poorness such as the Vision 2016, The National Policy on Rural Development, NDPs, the National Poverty Reduction Strategy and other policies,
As portion of its committedness to poverty decrease and nutrient security, Botswana has adopted a United Nations Millennium Declaration from which the Millennium Development Goal ( MDG ) integrates the obliteration of poorness and hungriness. In order for the authorities of Botswana to mainstream poorness obliteration and hungriness, the authorities came up with the Vision 2016 scheme which its chief purpose is to impel the socio economic and development into a competitory, winning and comfortable state. This scheme is aligned to the states National Development Plan 9 which is presently active and besides it is aligned to the MDG ‘s. Furthermore they provide counsel on how the agribusiness sector will be productive and sustainable, and how they will do positive alterations to the economic development, poorness relief plans and nutrient security by the twelvemonth 2016 ( Vision 2016 papers, 2003 ).
Chapter 4: Data ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSIONS
In this chapter, I will look into the tendencies of informations on Households methods of obtaining nutrient, field and harvest size, Number of repasts per twenty-four hours consumed by each member of the family, Level of trade statistics and other elements that are subscribers to nutrient insecurity. And besides some instance surveies that have been done in the yesteryear about the state of affairs of Botswana on nutrient security.
4.1 Food Production Deficiency
Botswana has a semi- waterless clime, merely five per centum of the land is suited for cultivable agriculture ( FAO 2008 Statistics ). This makes it hard for the state to hold support for nutrient production in order to run into the demands of the consumers. In developing states, the cultivable land usage is diverting from its usage of farming to industrial base therefore ensuing in figure of husbandmans cut downing ( Brown 1995 ). In Botswana, a similar instance is shown by a diminution in the degree of nutrient production as indicated by figures 1, 2 and 3. Since 1995, the production degree of nutrient is deficient, maize, millet and other harvests are manfully affected until 2005. This poses to be a menace to the degree of nutrient security in Botswana because if nutrient production reduces, many people will non be able to hold entree to nutrient.
As compared to other states, for illustration China, as a underdeveloped state is undergoing through some procedure of industrialisation, their agricultural land has seen some land usage alterations to industries, lodging and substructure taking to a diminution in the cultivable land base. Similarly, a diminution in the agriculture base has been experienced in developed states, such as Japan. Japan produces approximately 47 % of its Calories and relies on imports from other states. Before in 1960, Japan had about 11.75 million farms which declined to 3.13 million in 1992. Furthermore estimations shows that the economically active population in agribusiness will be older hence a less figure of people will be left in the agribusiness sector ( Mikishi Okada Association, personal communicating, 1996 ).
From this research, we can see that the planetary universe is going more nutrient insecure with deficit of land for farming playing a major function. For the universe to run off from poorness, they should take land as a really of import resource. If developed states and developing states increases the degrees of urban agribusiness, may be states will get down to bear fruits by making contributing environment for nutrient stableness ( UNDP 1996 ). In order to accomplish this, states should come up with good policies in land term of office and maximize the local nutrient production as a scheme to brace universe nutrient resources.
Water is going progressively scarce in Botswana. A figure of states throughout the universe experience H2O deficits ( Nicholas 1994 ). To heighten proper execution of policies on nutrient security, authoritiess has to increase their outgo on agribusiness sector in order to advance agricultural production. But this has of import deductions for H2O handiness. Water scarceness is non presently a major issue in Botswana merely, even in the full universe, hence it more attending is needed by policy shapers and should non be neglected. Not merely the irrigation agribusiness will be affected, all other sectors are affected by deficiency of H2O. It should be recognised that a land-use determination is besides a water-use decision. “ A program based on bettering rain-fed agribusiness through acceptance of steps to do better usage of rainfall brings tradeoffs in that there may be less overflow to fulfill the H2O demands of downstream users and environmental maps. Planing for future nutrient security requires integrated analysis of land-use and H2O resources issues ” ( Gowing 2003 ).
Figure 1: Area planted by harvest ( 000 hectares )
Beginning: Central Statistics Office ( CSO ) Botswana
Figure 2: Area Harvested By Crop ( ‘000 Hectares )
Beginning: CSO Botswana
Figure 3: Entire Production by Crop ( Metric Tons )
Beginning: CSO Botswana
Figure 4: Livestock Population ( ‘000 )
Beginning: CSO Botswana
The agribusiness sector in Botswana is composed of the farm animal bomber sector and agrarian sub- sector. The sectors include a traditional system and a commercialised system. The farm animal contributes about 80 per centum to the agribusiness sector ( Agriculture Census Report 2004 ). The above figure 4, shows a diminution in the farm animal population. Botswana is lacking overall in nutrient production under the current province of engineering due to drought. The diminution in population of the cowss is chiefly due to higher recorded Numberss of carnal mortality instances. Botswana is largely affected by the Foot and Mouth Disease which affects the growing of farm animal population ( CSO Stats brief 2008 ).
4.2 Employment and Inequality in urban and rural countries
The agribusiness sector portion on Botswana ‘s GDP has shown a diminution, it stood at 3.7 per centum and 1.8 per centum in 1994 and 2008 severally ( CSO stats brief 2008 ). The cause in the diminution is chiefly due to the fact that from the old analysis, we have seen that the nutrient production reduced, and the population of the farm animal reduced. The 2002/03 HIES study shows that 21.20 per centum of the population in Botswana is employed by the agribusiness sector and this was the highest sector at national degree. The agribusiness sector farther employs 50.3 per centum of people in the rural countries go forthing a job of rural inequality due to economic system ‘s primary trust on cowss sub sector.
Furthermore, even in the farm animal sector, there is a significant inequality. The information shows a skewed distribution of ownership of resources. The study further shows that even though agribusiness sector employs a big proportion of the population, the income earned is lower in general as compared to other sectors. Merely a minority of the population owns cowss and farming land while the remainder depend on agribusiness by working, they do non hold cowss of their ain. About 80 per centum of rural families produced deficient nutrient to feed themselves, and the mean family green goods less than half of its day-to-day thermal demand ( HIES 2002/03 ).
In rural countries, there are more individual families headed by females than in urban countries. They are largely affected by nutrient insecurity as they are unable to feed and supply significant attention for their households ( FAO 2000 ). This resulted in Botswana following schemes that can assist the state in its variegation plans in order to relieve poorness.
4.3 Food Consumption
Harmonizing to the FAO, the nutrient[ 1 ]ingestion refers to the sum of nutrient available for human ingestion as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. The informations used was extracted from the FAO statistical database, nevertheless the existent nutrient ingestion recorded may be lower than the measure shown as nutrient handiness depending on the magnitude of wastage and losingss of nutrient in the family, e.g. during storage, in readying and cookery, as plate-waste or measures fed to domestic animate beings and pets, thrown or given away.
Food ingestion per individual is the sum of nutrient, in footings of measure, for each person in the entire population. Figure 5 shows nutrient groups and the measures consumed. From the figure, it can be seen that cereals excepting beer and milk excepting butter are the largely consumed nutrient class, even though demoing a diminution over the period. From a nutrient security point of position, this is non a good mark of advancement for the state ‘s province of nutrient security.
The starchy roots and alcoholic drinks follows as the most consumed nutrient class in Botswana. The 2002/03 HIES study besides indicates a displacement in ingestion forms of families. Alcohol and Tobacco class remains the highest consumed nutrient after the nutrient class ( HIES 2002/03 ). Research has shown that intoxicant has a negative relationship towards nutrient security because family ‘s members spend more of their disposable income on intoxicant instead than purchasing nutrient, therefore ensuing in deficiency of entree to nutrient by other members of the family. In Botswana research has shown that high consumption of intoxicant has a positive relationship in part to high prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS ( BIAS II 2005 ).
Figure 5: nutrient ingestion
FAO statistics division
Chapter 5: CONCULSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Decisions will be made on the footing of the information analysis, and besides after discoursing the policies aimed at bettering the degree of nutrient security by the authorities, how effectual are they implemented by policy shapers, and so will discourse what the authorities should larn from other states who fairing good in keeping low values of nutrient insecure people.