The of adequate, timely feedback and their teachers claim


The Role And Relevence of Feedback in Higher Education



Neeta  Deepaware

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There is a great importance of
feedback in improving learning for the students of higher education. It is one
of the most powerful and least understood tools lecturers have. Thereby it is
imperative that lecturers can be able to communicate to their students how they
are doing and what is expected from them ,if the educator is not able to
communicate and guide his or her students it will be imposible for their
students  to improve and learn properly.
While effective feedback has frequently been identified as a key statergy in
learning and teaching , little known research has focused on students
perceptions of feedback and the contribution feedback makes to students’
learning and teaching. Through this paper I also suggest  some modern and technology based way of
provieng the role and relevance of feedback of the students in higher
education. It can also help to the teaching of lecturers in a professional





theories and academics alike espouse the importance of feedback on performance
assessment tasks for supporting improvement and progress in student learning
achievement.”Janice Orrella, 2006


is considered as a difficult job in higher education system. Although it is
acknowledged as an essential element of improving the learning process of the
students. Considering feedback and its role and relevance in student learning,
a substantial and growing body of research in higher education.Feedback is known
as a vital

to facilitate students’ development as independent learners to monitor,
evaluate, and regulate their learning.


Key Words –
feedback, students, lecturers, higher education.


is a large indication supporting the usefulness of feedback to promote student
learning. The different student surveys
across the world have also emphasized that students are dissatisfied with the feedback they receive on their course works. Student claim a lack
of adequate, timely feedback and their teachers
claim that students fail to apply the advice given. It is high time for the lecturers to re-think about the feedback providing
process. They should avoid traditional way of proving
feedback towards the students. Keeping this aforementioned problem in mind,
some suggestions have been made to make feedback more
effective and valuable in terms of student learning:


Make students understand what good
performance or goal means


will be easy for the students if they can only achieve learning goals if they
understand those goals. They also need to feel some ownership of them, and can
understand the self-assessment process In higher education, there should be a
reasonable degree of similarity between the goals set by students and the goals
originally set by the teacher. This is rationally vital given that it is the
students’ goals that serve as the

for self-regulation. Nonetheless, there is substantial research evidence
showing significant mismatches between tutors’ and students’ conceptions of
goals and of assessment criteria and standards.


Simplifies the
improvement process of self-assessment or reflections in learning


is to provide them the opportunities to exercise regulating characteristics of
their own learning and to reflect on that practice. Students are usually
involved in monitoring gaps between internally set task goals and the outcomes
that they are generating. Developing selfassessment can make feedback more


Providing quality information to students
about their learning


teachers have a vital role in increasing their students’ own ability for
understanding the self-regulation process. They are also an essential source of
external feedback. Traditionally, feedback from teachers has

a source where students can evaluate progress. The students can also check out
their own internal progression by the feedback given by the teachers.
Furthermore, teachers are usually more effective in

mistakes in students’ work rather than themselves. As a result, providing
quality information to students is very important to ensuring student learning.


 Allowing peer dialogue in understanding the


approach of increasing the value and effectiveness of feedback and the
likelihood that the information provided is understood by students is to
conceptualize feedback more as dialogue rather than as information

. Feedback as dialogue means that the student will

only get written feedback information but also has the opportunity to have
discussion about that feedback afterwards. In this circumstances, in order to
make feedback more effective and valuable it should

understood by the student before it can be used to make productive


 Inspiring positive motivational beliefs


can play a vital part in learning and assessment. Studies on motivation and
self-esteem are significant as they help students to understand self-regulation
where they often fail. In teaching, it is

that motivation and self-esteem are probable to be improved when a course has
many lowstakes assessment tasks. While feedback provides evidence about
progress and achievement, rather than high stakes summative assessment tasks
where evidence is only about success or failure .

 Providing opportunities to close the gap
between current and desired performance


discussing feedback from a motivational perspective in the previous sections,
in this section it has been discussed how feedback can provide the students the
opportunity to close the gap between current and desired performance of them.
For self-regulation it should be considered how feedback effects the academic

that is made. Feedback offers a chance of closing a gap between current
performance and the performance expected by the tutor.


 Effective feedback can provide information
to teachers that can be used to help shape the teaching


feedback practice can not only provide useful information to the students in
improving their learning,but also can offer decent information to teachers
which is eventually improve the learning experience for

students. While producing relevant and informative feedback in meeting the
students’ demand, the teachers themselves need to have fair
idea about the students’ progression. They eventually become more involved in
reviewing and reflecting on students’ performance which drives them to make
better learning environment.


 Giving positive feedback


the time of providing feedback it is important that after reading that a
student should have a positive feeling about that feedback . This is considered
as a process of motivating the students to utilise the feedback they have
received. Feedback should not be discouraging the students at any cost. Obviously,
it is vital to draw the student’s attention to the less successful parts of a
coursework, however the teachers should be cautious in providing “negative
feedback” of this kind. Thus teachers can improve students’ learning
environment by presenting the feedback in a positive way.


 Choosing the right moment


it has been observed that teachers overburden students with feedback. One important
issue modern day lecturers need to understand that they should limit the amount
of feedback they are providing. Or else the teachers may find their students
uninterested and bored with the

they are getting. Similarly, teachers should not set up too many criteria.

 Adopting various E-Feedback techniques


a number of E-Feedback techniques have been developed to improve the students
learning process. These E-Feedback techniques can be adopted by the teachers to
improve the feedback for the



Email Feedback


is a simple but effective way of providing students the feedback. There can be
different kind of email feedback. Some emails can basically provide generic
comments to a whole group of students

when one lecturer is teaching large group. On the other hand, other form of
e-mail feedback is sending electronic versions of the feedback forms of
individual feedback to a particular student.


Audio & Video Feedback


players have been widely-used for few years. Recently, that has been exploited
in providing feedback to students. It is widely known as podcast inn academic
arena. Often this is used in amalgamation with other types of feedback. The
lecturers who use podcasts to provide feedback find them an easy technique. It
helps to provide a good quality feedback very quickly, rather as they would in
a physical meeting with a student.




casting is a new grown technology which leads teachers to exhibit to students
how things should be done. A screencast records the activities on a computer
screen, so it is predominantly beneficial for

for example, how to write or use software, or steps in a calculation, as it
demonstrates the process by which something is done. It can also deliver a
model answer for a particular kind of problem. Several students can access a
screencast at a time as a result it can be used in providing useful feedback on
common problems which students encounter in course works.







Recycling written comments


written feedback can be important in helping students to learn. However, it is
a timeconsuming process. If the number of student are very high, it puts more
stress on teachers’ time in producing these comments. This section describe
methods of “recycling” comments that lecturers find themselves
repeatedly making on common matters in student course works. In some cases
comments can be recycled using specialised soft-wares, and in others standard
word-processing packages.




paper throws a light on improving the feedback process in higher education. It
shifts the focus firmly away from the old delivery models of feedback to
modern, effective and more valuables ones. Giving feedback is an important
skill for lecturers in higher education and has a major influence on the
quality of the students’ learning process. With some guideline provided within
the paper it has been tried to contribute to a general acceptance of different
feedback practices as important learning tools in higher education. It is clear
that this is high time when lectures should re-think about the feedback process
to improve the students’ learning. The paper tried to provide some key
principles of good feedback practice that can address a wide spectrum – the
cognitive, behavioural and motivational aspects of reflections.




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learning, Journal of Higher Education, 54(1),


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