The Role And Relevence of Feedback in Higher Education Dr.
Neeta Deepaware ASSTT.PROFESSOR COMMERCE DPTT. MGMMThere is a great importance offeedback in improving learning for the students of higher education. It is oneof the most powerful and least understood tools lecturers have. Thereby it isimperative that lecturers can be able to communicate to their students how theyare doing and what is expected from them ,if the educator is not able tocommunicate and guide his or her students it will be imposible for theirstudents to improve and learn properly.While effective feedback has frequently been identified as a key statergy inlearning and teaching , little known research has focused on studentsperceptions of feedback and the contribution feedback makes to students’learning and teaching. Through this paper I also suggest some modern and technology based way ofprovieng the role and relevance of feedback of the students in highereducation.
It can also help to the teaching of lecturers in a professionalway. Introduction “Assessmenttheories and academics alike espouse the importance of feedback on performanceassessment tasks for supporting improvement and progress in student learningachievement.”Janice Orrella, 2006 Feedbackis considered as a difficult job in higher education system. Although it isacknowledged as an essential element of improving the learning process of thestudents. Considering feedback and its role and relevance in student learning,a substantial and growing body of research in higher education.Feedback is knownas a vitalapproachto facilitate students’ development as independent learners to monitor,evaluate, and regulate their learning. Key Words –feedback, students, lecturers, higher education.
Thereis a large indication supporting the usefulness of feedback to promote studentlearning. The different student surveysacross the world have also emphasized that students are dissatisfied with the feedback they receive on their course works. Student claim a lackof adequate, timely feedback and their teachersclaim that students fail to apply the advice given. It is high time for the lecturers to re-think about the feedback providingprocess.
They should avoid traditional way of provingfeedback towards the students. Keeping this aforementioned problem in mind,some suggestions have been made to make feedback moreeffective and valuable in terms of student learning: Make students understand what goodperformance or goal means Itwill be easy for the students if they can only achieve learning goals if theyunderstand those goals. They also need to feel some ownership of them, and canunderstand the self-assessment process In higher education, there should be areasonable degree of similarity between the goals set by students and the goalsoriginally set by the teacher. This is rationally vital given that it is thestudents’ goals that serve as thecriteriafor self-regulation. Nonetheless, there is substantial research evidenceshowing significant mismatches between tutors’ and students’ conceptions ofgoals and of assessment criteria and standards. Simplifies theimprovement process of self-assessment or reflections in learning Studentsis to provide them the opportunities to exercise regulating characteristics oftheir own learning and to reflect on that practice. Students are usuallyinvolved in monitoring gaps between internally set task goals and the outcomesthat they are generating. Developing selfassessment can make feedback moreeffective.
Providing quality information to studentsabout their learning Theteachers have a vital role in increasing their students’ own ability forunderstanding the self-regulation process. They are also an essential source ofexternal feedback. Traditionally, feedback from teachers hasbeena source where students can evaluate progress. The students can also check outtheir own internal progression by the feedback given by the teachers.Furthermore, teachers are usually more effective indetectingmistakes in students’ work rather than themselves.
As a result, providingquality information to students is very important to ensuring student learning. Allowing peer dialogue in understanding thefeedback Anapproach of increasing the value and effectiveness of feedback and thelikelihood that the information provided is understood by students is toconceptualize feedback more as dialogue rather than as informationtransmission. Feedback as dialogue means that the student willnotonly get written feedback information but also has the opportunity to havediscussion about that feedback afterwards. In this circumstances, in order tomake feedback more effective and valuable it shouldbeunderstood by the student before it can be used to make productiveimprovements.
Inspiring positive motivational beliefs Motivationcan play a vital part in learning and assessment. Studies on motivation andself-esteem are significant as they help students to understand self-regulationwhere they often fail. In teaching, it isrecommendedthat motivation and self-esteem are probable to be improved when a course hasmany lowstakes assessment tasks.
While feedback provides evidence aboutprogress and achievement, rather than high stakes summative assessment taskswhere evidence is only about success or failure . Providing opportunities to close the gapbetween current and desired performance Afterdiscussing feedback from a motivational perspective in the previous sections,in this section it has been discussed how feedback can provide the students theopportunity to close the gap between current and desired performance of them.For self-regulation it should be considered how feedback effects the academicworkthat is made. Feedback offers a chance of closing a gap between currentperformance and the performance expected by the tutor. Effective feedback can provide informationto teachers that can be used to help shape the teaching Goodfeedback practice can not only provide useful information to the students inimproving their learning,but also can offer decent information to teacherswhich is eventually improve the learning experience forthestudents. While producing relevant and informative feedback in meeting thestudents’ demand, the teachers themselves need to have fairidea about the students’ progression.
They eventually become more involved inreviewing and reflecting on students’ performance which drives them to makebetter learning environment. Giving positive feedback Atthe time of providing feedback it is important that after reading that astudent should have a positive feeling about that feedback . This is consideredas a process of motivating the students to utilise the feedback they havereceived. Feedback should not be discouraging the students at any cost. Obviously,it is vital to draw the student’s attention to the less successful parts of acoursework, however the teachers should be cautious in providing “negativefeedback” of this kind. Thus teachers can improve students’ learningenvironment by presenting the feedback in a positive way.
Choosing the right moment Sometimesit has been observed that teachers overburden students with feedback. One importantissue modern day lecturers need to understand that they should limit the amountof feedback they are providing. Or else the teachers may find their studentsuninterested and bored with thefeedbackthey are getting. Similarly, teachers should not set up too many criteria. Adopting various E-Feedback techniques Now-a-daysa number of E-Feedback techniques have been developed to improve the studentslearning process.
These E-Feedback techniques can be adopted by the teachers toimprove the feedback for thestudents. Email Feedback Emailis a simple but effective way of providing students the feedback. There can bedifferent kind of email feedback. Some emails can basically provide genericcomments to a whole group of studentsespeciallywhen one lecturer is teaching large group. On the other hand, other form ofe-mail feedback is sending electronic versions of the feedback forms ofindividual feedback to a particular student. Audio & Video Feedback MP3players have been widely-used for few years. Recently, that has been exploitedin providing feedback to students. It is widely known as podcast inn academicarena.
Often this is used in amalgamation with other types of feedback. Thelecturers who use podcasts to provide feedback find them an easy technique. Ithelps to provide a good quality feedback very quickly, rather as they would ina physical meeting with a student. Screencasts Screencasting is a new grown technology which leads teachers to exhibit to studentshow things should be done. A screencast records the activities on a computerscreen, so it is predominantly beneficial fordemonstrating,for example, how to write or use software, or steps in a calculation, as itdemonstrates the process by which something is done. It can also deliver amodel answer for a particular kind of problem. Several students can access ascreencast at a time as a result it can be used in providing useful feedback oncommon problems which students encounter in course works. Recycling written comments Individualisedwritten feedback can be important in helping students to learn.
However, it isa timeconsuming process. If the number of student are very high, it puts morestress on teachers’ time in producing these comments. This section describemethods of “recycling” comments that lecturers find themselvesrepeatedly making on common matters in student course works. In some casescomments can be recycled using specialised soft-wares, and in others standardword-processing packages. Conclusion Thepaper throws a light on improving the feedback process in higher education. Itshifts the focus firmly away from the old delivery models of feedback tomodern, effective and more valuables ones.
Giving feedback is an importantskill for lecturers in higher education and has a major influence on thequality of the students’ learning process. With some guideline provided withinthe paper it has been tried to contribute to a general acceptance of differentfeedback practices as important learning tools in higher education. It is clearthat this is high time when lectures should re-think about the feedback processto improve the students’ learning. The paper tried to provide some keyprinciples of good feedback practice that can address a wide spectrum – thecognitive, behavioural and motivational aspects of reflections. Reference 1. Boud, D. (2000) Sustainable assessment: rethinking assessment forthe learning society,Studies in Continuing Education, 22(2), 151-167 2. Eraut, M.
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Nicol, D. (2010). From monologue to dialogue: improving writtenfeedback processes in mass higher education.
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(1985) Evaluation and the improvement of academiclearning, Journal of Higher Education, 54(1), 6. Sadler, D.R. (1989) Formative assessment and the design ofinstructional systems, Instructional Science, 18,119-144.