The Key Factors or Indicators in the Motivation of Employees Essay

RAP submission on The key factors or indicators in the motivation of employees of CARE International in Zimbabwe. By Hughes Wonder Semu. September 2008. Table of contents 1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………. 4 General background…………………………………………………………………….. 4 Objectives……………………………………………………………………………. 4 Organizational background…………………………………………………………… 4 Organizational structure………………………………………………………………5 2. Literature review and information gathering………………………………………….. 6 Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs……………………………………………………….. Herzberg’s Two factor theory……………………………………………………….. 6 Information gathering……………………………………………………………….. 6 Questionnaires………………………………………………………………………7 Discussions…………………………………………………………………………8 Observations……………………………………………………………………….. 9 Internal documentation…………………………………………………………….. 9 Newspaper articles…………………………………………………………………. 9 Other sources………………………………………………………………………. 9 3. Results, analysis and conclusion………………………………………………………10 Questionnaire results and analysis…………………………………………………. 0 Q1-5………………………………………………………………………………10 Q6-8………………………………………………………………………………11 Q9-12…………………………………………………………………………….. 12 Q13……………………………………………………………………………….. 12 Q14……………………………………………………………………………….. 13 Q15……………………………………………………………………………….. 13 Q16……………………………………………………………………………….. 14 Q17……………………………………………………………………………….. 14 Q18……………………………………………………………………………….. 15 Q19, 22 and 23……………………………………………………………………15 Q20, 21 and 24……………………………………………………………………16 Q25……………………………………………………………………………….. 6 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………. 16 Motivators………………………………………………………………………….. 16 Work itself……………………………………………………………………….. 16 Work environment……………………………………………………………….. 16 Advancement and growth………………………………………………………… 17 Recognition and praise……………………………………………………………17 Security…………………………………………………………………………… 18 Dissatisfiers…………………………………………………………………………. 19 Perks………………………………………………………………………………19 Short term contracts………………………………………………………………19 Salaries below competition………………………………………………………. 9 Link with motivational theories…………………………………………………….. 19 4. Appendices Appendix 1………………………………………………………………………….. Appendix 2………………………………………………………………………….. 20 Appendix 3………………………………………………………………………….. 21 Appendix 4………………………………………………………………………….. 24 Introduction 1 General Background Motivation can be defined as the internal driving force that compels people to achieve. At the workplace, motivation plays a key role and it invariably affects individual as well as organizational productivity.

It is therefore of importance that factors which motivate individuals are understood so that organizations can address those factors and thereby create an effective, efficient and productive workforce. An understanding of motivational factors, including ways of satisfying, meeting and addressing those factors enables people to become better managers and is basic for anyone who aspires to management (Dr John Ball. 2003). In order to elicit the best performance from employees it is important to understand what motivates them. A workforce is only as good and as effective as the manager is.

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A plan of action is only good as the people who execute it. Good business plans can succumb to the ugly effects of a demotivated workforce whereas proper execution of any plan can be effectively done by a motivated workforce. It is an accepted fact that managers’ responsibility for staff performance covers motivating and coaching (FTC Foulks Lynch, 2004). I thus chose this topic because of my desire to be a better manager, one who can easily motivate his subordinates and enable them to willingly contribute to the greater good of the team. Objectives The objective of this project is to enquire into, ascertain and investigate the key factors in the motivation of employees of CARE International in Zimbabwe. Being a CARE employee, I envisage that the data gathering and collection exercise will be less difficult since there is already a good rapport between me and my fellow employees. Moreover, this will broaden my data collection methods as I can observe and listen to informal discussions. These tend to bring out employees true feelings more than formal interviews/ questionnaires.

I intend to use a variety of data collection techniques, ranging from primary to secondary sources. Subsequent analysis will follow, leading to the conclusion. In the analysis and conclusion, reference will be made to various motivational theories especially the three classical theories of Maslow, Herzberg and Mcgregor. The conclusion will also focus on whether the evidence found during the research supports or rebuffs the aforesaid theories. 3 Organizational background CARE Zimbabwe is a non governmental organization and is part of CARE

Nederland, an international NGO registered in over 140 countries. CARE Zimbabwe undertakes and executes many different activities and due to the nature of the work, all employees are employed on a contract basis. The size of the workforce also varies depending on the number of activities being carried out, but generally the number ranges from 150 to 300. The season when there will be most employees is from June to October when the main project being undertaken is vulnerable group feeding (VGF). At the time the research was done, the number of employees in CARE was 137.

The low number was caused by the government suspension of all non governmental field operations from June 2008 which meant that CARE had to downsize significantly. [pic] Fig 1. 0. CARE employment profile over twelve months. (Source: CARE Monthly payrolls) 1. 4. Organizational structure The organizational stratum can be split into three distinct levels. The lower levels are the operatives, those in grade one. The middle levels are those in grade two, ranging from 2. 1 to 2. 7. An interesting feature about level two is that those in the upper levels of grade two are considered to be lower managerial staff.

Grade three is the upper level, the managerial staff. These are the heads of departments and project managers. Beyond grade three is found the executive core, the directorate. The operational structure can be split into programmes and administration. The programmes department is where actual project implementation takes place or where direct programme value addition services are undertaken e. g. monitoring and evaluation. Staff skills in these areas are not easily transferable into non-NGO services sectors.

The administration department offers support services to the programmes department and staff skills in this department are easily transferable from the NGO sector into other sectors e. g. IT support and accountancy. (See appendix 1) My research will draw on the operational and management structures, to see if motivational factors are consistent across the entire stratum or they differ across the different sections of the stratum. Literature review and information gathering. 2. 1. Literature Review Classical theories on motivation can be classified into two categories namely the content/ need theories and the process theories.

The content theories are inclined to answer the question of ‘what’ motivates people and the inherent assumptions are that everyone responds to motivating factors the same way and that there is one best way to motivate everybody. Process theories on the other hand are intent on addressing the ‘how’ i. e. the processes of motivating people. 2. 2. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Maslow’s theory may be summed up by saying that everyone wants certain things throughout life, and these can be placed in five ascending categories, namely: Physiological needs: survival related needs e. g. ood, shelter Safety or security needs: security from unseen threats e. g. job retrenchments Social needs: affiliation and a sense of belonging Self esteem/ ego needs: sense of self worth Self actualization needs: need to achieve something worthwhile/ realizing one’s potential. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Challenging Job SelfAdvancement opportunities FulfillmentCreative task demands Achievement in work EgoMerit pay increase High status job title SocialCompatible work group Friendships at work Safety / SecurityJob security Fringe benefits Basic / Physiological Basic salary Safe working conditions Fig 2. (Kaplan publishing: Accountant in business 2007) The shortcomings of the above theory are that individuals have different needs and these are not necessarily in the same order. Individuals can also have different needs at the same time and not all of these needs can be satisfied through work. Research has also shown that people’s needs can be influenced by their personal circumstances at that particular time and the state of development of society. 2. 3. Herzberg’s Two Factor theory. Herzberg differentiated those content factors that resulted in motivation (motivators) from those that that resulted in dissatisfaction (hygiene factors).

These can be summarized as follows: |Factor Category |Importance |Elements | |Hygiene |The factors do not positively motivate when |Salary | | |present but de-motivate when they are absent. |Administration | | | |Supervision | | |Management | | | |Company Policy | | | |Status | | | |Working Conditions | |Motivators |The factors can positively motivate when |Achievement | | |present in a work situation and de-motivate |Recognition | | |employee when absent. |Responsibility | | | |Advancement | | | |Growth | Fig 2. Herzberg’s Two Factor theory (Source: Kaplan Publishing 2008) Herzberg argues that the more intrinsic factors are more related to job satisfaction and are motivating factors e. g. rowth, advancement and responsibility. The exterior factors are not motivators themselves but their absence lead to dissatisfaction e. g. pay, human development policy and working conditions. It is essential thus to eliminate the dissatisfiers and reinforce the motivators. 2. 4. Information gathering The information gathering methods used were both primary and secondary and these were influenced by the following: – the ease of obtaining the relevant information, – the authenticity of different sources, – the level of analysis that would be applied on the collected information and – the age of the data or information that would be collected.

The data collection methods used were questionnaires, discussions, observations, organisational statistics and internal documentation, academic texts, newspaper articles and internet material. 2. 4. 1. Questionnaires Since this research was going to be based on a case study scenario, this method was of utmost importance in bringing out first hand information on the motivational factors of employees. The data collected is suitable for multi-dimensional analysis and thus a lot of information could be extracted from such data. Quantitative and narrative analysis can be employed on this kind of data. Key factors and difficulties I encountered with this information gathering technique are: – The designing of the questionnaire itself.

There had to be a balance between the length of the questionnaire and the information to be gathered. In a work setting people will not take kindly to a questionnaire that will take up too much of their time. – The language to be used had to be plain and communicate the question clearly. In some cases people interpreted the question in a way different from the way I intended. These cases will be highlighted in the analysis stage. – The sample size that I would choose. In an organization that normally employs more than 300 employees it was difficult for me to come up with a truly representative sample. This was further compounded by the suspension that left only a skeleton staff.

I therefore administered the questionnaire to as many people I could reach but being careful to cut across the whole cross section of the organization. The major casualties of the suspension were the operatives i. e. grade one employees and this was reflected in the low responses of employees in grade one. – A few employees expressed reservations about filling out the questionnaire, as they regarded some sections to be sensitive and some had the notion that the questionnaire will be used for management purposes. I had to assure them that this was for purely academic purposes and that they could leave the completed questionnaire in a tender box so that I would not know who filled what questionnaire. This gave them a measure of assurance regarding confidentiality.

However a number of senior staff members had undertaken academic researches before and they readily filled out the questionnaire. 2. 4. 2. Discussions Being a CARE employee gave me the benefit that these discussions were carried out in a relaxed environment. This technique was used for: – The collection of executive information and about HR issues e. g. predominant management styles, performance evaluation techniques and human development issues. – Follow up on grey areas of the questionnaires. In such cases the discussions could also be done in groups. People were more forthcoming in discussions since these do not constitute hard evidence. 2. 4. 3. Observations

These were mainly used to assess the congruence of evidence obtained in questionnaires and discussions with the actual everyday events. Observations could be carried out focusing on singular departments or on the organization on the whole. Such kind of information is not verifiable and it does not qualify well for evidence that could be used for arguing a strong case point. 2. 4. 4. Organizational statistics/ internal documentation This was mainly used to collect numerical information of a historical nature, as well as information regarding the organizational structure. Organizational policies on different issues are also outlined in the different manuals that have been developed within the organization.

The outstanding merit of this information is that it is easily verifiable and it has a high degree of integrity and correctness. CARE’s information storage system is highly structured and dependable. Being a CARE employee also made this kind of information easily obtainable for me. 2. 4. 5. Newspaper articles This gave insight into current practices by local and international companies regarding employee motivation. Moreover a greater exposure of the current economic environment and its effect on employee motivation was provided by newspaper articles. 2. 4. 5. Other sources Other sources included online information and academic texts. Results, analysis and conclusion 3. 1. Questionnaire results and analysis

Forty questionnaires were sent out and there were twenty nine responses. Six employees declined to fill out the questionnaire. I had asked someone to distribute some of the questionnaires for me and I could not get a chance to follow up on the six since they worked in outlying districts. Five had not yet filled out the questionnaire when final follow up was done. All of them indicated that they could not fill out the questionnaire because of pressure of work. Q1-5 Questions 1-5 gave general background information and demographics. These questions were also important in contextual analysis of the other questions. Figs 3. 1 to 3. 3 show graphical representation of the results. See Appendix 2) Fig 3. 1. Analysis of questionnaire responses [pic] Fig 3. 2. Period of service results [pic] Fig 3. 3. Age analysis of the sample Q6-8 There is a strong indication of job insecurity from staff, with 55% of the employees indicating a rating of less than three on question 6, while only 13 % put a rating of more than 3. Further, 55% of the staff identified factors within the organization’s control as the biggest threat to job security especially organizational restructuring and short term contracts, in contrast to reasons such as uncertain political environment and changes in government policies that were put forth by the other 45 %.

As evidenced by the replies to Q7, there seems to be low expectation of contract renewal upon expiry, even though 23 people of the sample did not have a case in the past where their contracts were not renewed (Q8). In Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, job security comes after the very basic physiological needs. Job security is thus a very fundamental need and the lack of it causes dissatisfaction, according to Herzberg. If this remains unsatisfied then employees might be ‘pushed’ from the organization and be ‘pulled’ to other organizations that satisfy these needs. The importance of the psychological contract was also brought out by the results of question 7-8. Most staff members perceived low chances of contract renewal, even though they had worked with the organization for more than 2 years on a renewal contract basis.

Though the organization’s contract renewal policy should give confidence to staff regarding job security, feelings from staff suggested the opposite. The organization should not only have policies that SHOW staff that their jobs are secure, but additionally staff should FEEL secure about their jobs. Longer contracts that are tied to funds availability from the donor might help do this. Additionally, explaining the basis of contract duration might bring a level of certainty about job security to staff. Q9-12 Questions 9-12 were meant to gauge how much employees like their jobs and the organization at large. All of the employees indicated that they were gaining knowledge and experience by working for the organization.

A few indicated other benefits such as the opportunity to travel and to work with different people, and the satisfaction that comes with knowing that they are making a difference in other people’s lives. These are classified as motivators by Herzberg because they are more intrinsic to the job. The higher needs on Maslow’s hierarchy e. g. social and self actualization needs are met by working with and the satisfaction of helping different people. On Q10, 19 employees indicated that they would accept another job. Follow up interviews and discussions showed a greater majority would accept if the offers are from other organizations. There were slightly mixed responses to Q11, with 59 % indicating that they would not accept jobs with similar benefits in non-NGO sectors.

Of those who said no, 75% of them are from the programmes department. This is congruent with the responses of Q9, where some internal motivators and benefits such as travel and satisfaction of helping people are mostly enjoyed by the people who directly undertake project implementation i. e. those in the programmes department. A majority of the employees indicated willingness to take on additional job related tasks without any extra benefits on Q12, with 23 of the employees indicating yes. The results also showed congruence with the above 3 questions which indicated that most employees at CARE like their jobs. Q13 This question was interpreted differently by different people.

Some put a rating of 1-5 on the individual job factors, while others distributed the numbers 1-5 on the different job factors (which is the way I had intended). Nonetheless regardless of how people answered, work environment and scope for growth and advancement carried high rating from most people. Thus these came out as the priority factors of a job. Q14 Most of the employees felt that the remuneration level of the organization is below competition. 23 employees indicated that the salary levels were below those of the competition. One of the employees indicated that they did not know whether the salaries were below the competition or not. Interviews with senior management and general observations supported the findings of Q14.

Management agreed that the level of remuneration was just below the competition across all levels of the organizational strata. Indeed on more than few occasions some comment were made by the Country Director that “if what you are looking for is money, then CARE is not the right organization for you”. It is interesting to note that CARE is referred to as a ‘training ground’ in NGO circles, and senior management is aware of that. The attitude shown by the Country Director is one of easy staff replacement and this is a view that is also shared by the managers. The Country Director moreover does not stand in the way of anyone who wants to leave the organization, and he has been chosen as a referee by many employees who are looking for new jobs. Q15

This question was meant to gauge the extent to which staff liked their jobs and to elicit what personal needs staff would seek to satisfy if they were given a lump sum of money. The responses indicated that most staff members would quit work with a one year’s salary. Six of the people above forty indicated that they would start small businesses or income generating projects. Starting a business, and making it successful, is supposed to satisfy the higher ego and self actualization needs in Maslow’s hierarchy. From this a relationship can be established between age and the level of needs that are prevalent in that age group. In this case, the older the person is, the more the need to satisfy the higher self actualization needs.

Of the younger age groups who indicated that they would quit work, more than half would invest the money and look for another job. Some actually indicated that the money would provide means to go to South Africa and look for a better paying job, since they would have means of survival in the period that they won’t be employed. Nine of the employees would rather continue working and all of them stated that the money will not be enough to start anything meaningful. The impression given by these responses is that these staff members are not earning a lot money, an opinion which is given credence from the analysis of Q14. An interesting relationship is that of these nine, eight had put a rating of less than three on Q6. This is something of a paradox.

The expectation is that someone would readily accept the offer on Q14 if they do not feel secure about their job. Taking into account that the responses of the first part on Q6 were out of sync with the second part, it would seem that results of the first part of Q6 cannot be used for concrete analysis. A personal opinion is that the responses of Q6 were based on recent events, where the government banned NGO’s and contracts of 123 employees were terminated without immediate renewal. This resulted in a lot of people feeling insecure about their jobs. The strong need for job security was further brought out in Q15. Furthermore, there is security that is brought by having a job.

Since the predominant societal mindset is that people should go to school to learn and get jobs, it follows that the second kind of security is more cultural rather than personal. Q16 Twenty three of the employees indicated that they work away from home, and twenty-one put no on the second part. The provision of transport from the areas of operation to the city was brought out as a strong need by all the employees. In the current economic environment of Zimbabwe, provision of transport has become a very basic and unsatisfied need. This is caused by both high costs (about 30cents per kilometer using the parallel market rate) and unavailability. Provision of accommodation was also mentioned by a large number of people. Q17

This question was meant to gauge the importance of money to employees as opposed to non-monetary benefits. Since perks are taxable in Zimbabwe, there would be no additional benefit if one chose a lot of perks over the monetary reward. Ten people indicated that they would want 80% as the money, nine indicated that they would want half as money and half as perks, while six put between 60 and 70% as money. Perks can be used to satisfy different needs, especially if the perks are of one’s own choice. Some are status symbols e. g. the kind of car that one drives is an indication of status. Some satisfy basic needs e. g. houses. At times, perks offer convenience to staff e. g. if an organization can buy groceries for its employees.

In the current Zimbabwean environment, shop shelves are empty and an employer who can buy groceries for staff is more likely to become an employer of choice. Perks also add certainty and structure to one’s life e. g. if an employee knows that there is a holiday allowance they will not need to save for a holiday. In the hypothetical situation of this question, the greater the perks, the less the initiative and the greater the structure on the individual’s part. To make this question more enlightening, an additional question was supposed to be asked, one that would seek to clarify what kind of perks staff would choose. This would then determine what kind of perks these would be e. g. fancy cars would be status perks while groceries would be basic need perks.

This question however showed that people want a degree of certainty and dependence in their lives, as shown by the fact that not one employee wanted their remuneration as a 100% monetary reward. The degree of certainty and dependency would also determine the level of security that would be felt by the employee. Some people actually highlighted that if they get all their remuneration as money then they are bound to spend it on less important things. However they would be more at ease if they know that the important and unavoidable expenses e. g. rent are already taken care of. Furthermore, the perks that were highlighted by most staff members during discussions were more basic e. g. ccommodation, school fees for children, transport, groceries and education support. This probably stems from the effects of the current economic environment that has made the satisfaction of basic needs a challenge. Q18 This question showed the motivation of staff to work in general. Mcgregor’s theory X and Y placed staff attitudes on a continuum, where theory X staff hated work, had no initiative, did not want responsibility and had to be coerced to work. Those of theory Y loved work, accepted responsibility and showed initiative. A lot of employees indicated a willingness to work, even in instances that did not affect their work directly. Reasons that were put forth varied.

Two people want extra benefit for extra work, others indicated that they would work to cover up for a colleague who would be away, others wanted appreciation from their superiors for extra work undertaken, and quite a number would be willing to do extra work if it presented them with an opportunity to learn new things. Still a few indicated emergency situations as instances when they could take on more work. From the analysis of this question and Q12, staff at CARE shows more theory Y characteristics than theory X. Q19, 22 and 23 These questions were meant to give a greater insight into the working environment at CARE. The work environment is an important factor that affects motivation. Social needs can be met at work; recognition needs can also be met at work if your work colleagues show appreciation for your work. Twenty-five people indicated yes on both parts of question 19.

Part b showed that people value recognition highly, as was said by Mary Kay Ash, “There are two things people want more than sex and money; recognition and praise”. Part (a) showed that management actions satisfied this very important human need. Twenty-one people put tense to very tense on Q22 and twenty-six people put hectic to very hectic on Q23. Interviews and discussions showed that the tenseness was caused by a strong drive for results from management. Employees further showed an understanding of the need to achieve results since availability of funding is dependant on the ability of the organization to meet project objectives. This also accounted for the hectic work schedules. The tense environment can be termed as a dissatisfier.

However this is offset by the recognition that is shown by management when employees accomplish their set tasks. Q20, 21 and 24 This set of questions gave an indication of the perception of the organizational policy concerning staff development. The overall impression is that organizational policy supports staff development. Seventeen of the people who answered felt that they can be promoted if they show and demonstrate competence and ability to execute higher level tasks. This is congruent with the recruitment policy which first considers internal staff before external candidates for any job placements (CARE HR Manual. 2007). On Q24 twenty-two employees agreed with the performance assessment system.

On Q20 almost all employees (75%) felt that the staff development policy was poor. Only six felt that it is fair to good. A lot of employees expressed the notion that the organization should show support for academic development of staff by providing loans to undertake courses/professional programmes and allowing time off for study. The responses of Q20 showed that staff expect some support regarding academic development from the organization, and that a lot of weight was placed on this aspect regarding staff interpretation of human development policy. However working for CARE provides opportunities for significant on the job training, and this was shown by the responses of Q9.

A general sentiment that was expressed was that however invaluable and important experience might be, it lagged behind paper qualifications when one is looking for a new job. Q25 Twenty-five employees answered yes on this question. Q12 and Q19 showed that staff at CARE show initiative, value work and are not afraid of responsibility. Q25 showed that the dominant management style is congruent with employee attitudes. Accountability of work entails free space to show initiative and to exercise judgment; that you are responsible for the results that you produce. Responsibility, initiative can be more identified with Maslow’s higher ego and self actualization needs. 3. 2. Conclusion

The aim of the research is to assess the key factors and indicators in the motivation of CARE Zimbabwe employees. Based on the findings, a number of motivational factors are apparent and wide ranging. 3. 2. 1. Work itself The answers from the questionnaire showed that employees like their work and derive a lot of satisfaction from it. Many needs are satisfied from the work itself; social networking, satisfaction of helping people, traveling and the learning opportunities that are presented through working with different kinds of people. The enjoyment of the work itself is further supported by the unwillingness of people to change the kind of jobs that they do.

Though opportunities to work for other organizations are welcome, working in different sectors other than non-government organizations is not a prospective proposition for most employees. A service period of more than two years for more than two thirds of the employees could be a further indication of employees’ enjoyment or satisfaction of the work they do. Generally CARE employees like work and are more identifiable with Theory Y characteristics in Mcgregor’s continuum. Willingness to work is always there even for no extra material benefits. This inherent favorable attitude towards work, coupled with the kind of work that provides inner satisfaction and sense of attainment and achievement, gives a case for the motivation of most employees through work itself. 3. 2. 2. Work environment

The work environment at CARE is one that allows for initiative and expression of one’s abilities. For a class of people who are seeking to satisfy the higher needs of self actualization, ego and social affiliation in Maslow’s hierarchy, the work environment at CARE provides a conducive environment for the satisfaction of these needs. Though the work environment is tense and the work schedule hectic, the responsibility and apparent delegation that is evident makes staff feel empowered in determining the way they that results can be achieved. As stated by McClelland and Atkinson, people have three fundamental needs: achievement, affiliation and power (FTC Foulks Lynch. 2004).

The working environment at CARE makes it possible for the satisfaction of these needs. People are satisfied when they achieve their set tasks, working with different communities and with other colleagues makes people feel that they are a part of a group, and delegation of responsibility gives a sense of power as they feel they are empowered in their spheres of influence. 3. 2. 3. Advancement and growth An invaluable benefit that employees obtain by working for CARE is the chance to learn and attain credible experience in their chosen fields. Organizational policy supports on the job staff development, though this is not further complimented by supporting academic development of staff.

According to Vroom’s expectancy model, people’s motivation toward doing anything is the product of the anticipated worth than an individual places on a goal (valence) and the chances of achieving that goal (expectancy). Staff at CARE wants better paying jobs and they know that experience and skill are assets that are highly valued in the job market and that their chances of having better jobs are increased if they have these assets. Therefore they are willing to work to get the necessary experience and skills. Differently stated, the expectance of better, higher and more paying jobs whose chances are increased by having adequate experience and skill, rives the employees at CARE to work so that they can acquire the relevant skills. Further, there are high expectations that people can be promoted within the organization as well. 3. 2. 4. Recognition and praise Modern research is showing more and more that people value recognition and praise highly. As was said by Mary Kay Ash, founder of Mary Kay Cosmetics, “There are two things that people value more than sex and money; recognition and praise”. People value praise and recognition, be it at work, at home, in relationships and among friends and colleagues. Q19 showed that senior managers showed appreciation for their staff efforts, even for routine tasks.

Part (b) of the same question further showed that staff expects recognition and appreciation from their superiors. This highlighted the inherent need for recognition that is found in most people. If this need is satisfied, as is the case at CARE, staff is bound to become more motivated and to deliver results. The following statement aptly summarizes the effect of recognition; “When you get serious about performance, you have to get serious about recognition” (Bob Nelson, PhD, and Dean Spritzer, PhD). Recognition is also tied to the extent of accountability that staff is given over their work by their superiors. Making staff accountable for their work shows that senior managers recognize the abilities of their subordinates.

Staff regular performance is further reinforced by the appreciation that is shown by the managers. These dynamics have desirable and immense motivational effects and benefits. It is also interesting to note professional bodies use this aspect of recognition for achievements e. g. ACCA publishes names of passed finalists in their financial journals as well as in the local media of different countries where the students would have taken their exams. This should undoubtedly spur on those who would still be in the process to finish their respective accounting modules. 3. 2. 5. Security The need for security was highlighted in a majority of responses. Q15 clearly brought out the need for job security from most people.

It did not matter if someone got a lump sum to start something meaningful, they would rather invest and look for another job. This need for job security was especially brought out in the younger demography of the staff. A lot of staff expressed a high affinity for predictability and certainty in their lives. They would rather have someone take care of their needs for them. Knowing that all the important aspects in their lives have been attended to brings a sense of security to them. There is also an aspect of social security that is worth mentioning. Motivation is influenced by values, beliefs, attitudes, needs and goals (FTC Foulks Lynch, 2004).

The dominant thinking and belief of the society is that one must have a job. Jobs are highly valued in the societal mindset. Therefore to easily gain social affiliation, one must have a job. It is possible that workers at CARE are in their jobs to get social affiliation and security. It is worth mentioning however that the predominant view of the value of a job is being erased and a number of people are leaving the formal sector. As was highlighted in a local newspaper, “. . . the status quo (of high prices and low incomes) had given rise to skills flights from the formal market to the informal market, where people are realizing more gains by working for themselves than other people” (Ashwert Kugara, 2008).

The research did not bring out conclusively that working for CARE is providing security in all the areas mentioned above. Security of social affiliation that comes with a job is not doubt satisfied. However, CARE does not offer perks except medical aid and transport (for grade three employees only). Thus there is no predictability that is looked for by a lot of the people e. g. transport came out as a strong need from most people. Indications of job security are there, since most people have served the organization for more than two years continuously, albeit on a renewal contract basis. However people expressed a rather high degree of insecurity regarding their jobs. 3. 3. Dissatisfiers

Notwithstanding the motivators identified above, there are some hygiene factors that need addressing. 3. 3. 1. Perks Transport and accommodation came out as strong needs from most employees. Lack of these benefits makes staff think that they are not being adequately compensated for having to work away in different cities/towns from their families. Other perks that were expressed included educational support e. g. loans to pay for exam fees or study time off or both. 3. 3. 2. Short term contracts It would seem that there is a lack of understanding regarding the basis of contract duration from staff. Quite a number of people highlighted this as a threat to their jobs.

There seems to be a general feeling among staff that the short contracts are an excuse, a sinister tool even, to expel people from the organization for various reasons, some of which might be perceived to be invalid by staff. Management assurance is needed in this area. 3. 3. 3. Salaries below competition This did not come out as a clear dissatisfying factor from the employees at CARE. Staff did acknowledge that salaries are below competition, not way below competition but just below competition. It seems there is an understanding from staff and management regarding remuneration which is why a lot of people value the experience they get as opposed to the low salaries. This factor would not come out as a dissatisfier as such. 3. 4. Link with motivational theories The results from the research strongly support Herzberg’s and Maslow’s theories.

Factors that are more associated with the job rather than with the working environment certainly lead to motivation. Job satisfaction flows from the job itself and overwhelming evidence in this research supports this. Further, the opportunities that are brought in the job undertakings themselves are indeed strong motivating factors. The salaries that are paid to staff are enough to meet the basic physiological needs of food and shelter. Security needs are met to a great extent, though not entirely. The mindset of CARE employees, that of Mcgregor’s Theory Y characteristics, point to the higher needs in Maslow’s hierarchy, which are social, ego and self worth.

These needs are being met through work, though ego needs can be further met by higher salaries, which is why staff are working to get experience, leading to higher paying job which will meet the ego needs. Appendix 2 Table 1. Employee profile in Aug 08. |Employee grades |No. of CARE employees in Aug 08 |No. of questionnaire | | | |responses | |1 |52 |6 | |2 |70 |20 | |3 |15 |3 | Table 2. Period of service analysis No. of years working for CARE |No. of employees | |0-2 years |8 | |2-5 years |9 | |more than 5 years |12 | Table 3. Employee age profile |Age (years) |No. of employees | |below 25 |1 | |25-30 |7 | |33-35 |5 | |35-40 |8 | |above 40 |8 |