The higher use of conventional fossil fuel is
responsible for immense harm to surroundings, due to emanation of detrimental
gases and impurities in air that leads to recent global warming. These serious
challenges encouraged engineers and scientists across the world to develop technology
in order to make use of renewable sources so as to prevent from environmental
hazards, high cost for energy production and avoid establishing new costly
The Thermal Energy Storage system (TES) is evolved so
that the solar thermal energy can be stored during peak hours of sunlight and
it can be utilized during off- peak hours or during dark hours, Thermal energy
storage is ineluctable for efficient use of renewable energy sources due to
their fragmentary nature, exclusively solar energy, which is the most eventual
energy source. Thermal energy storage offers a vital role in order to bond the
gap between energy supply and its demand, which in turn, improves the performance
and effectiveness of the energy systems.
can be categorized into sensible heat storage, latent heat storage and
thermo-chemical categories of heat storage systems. Sensible Heat System (SHS)
is the most common method for storing thermal energy, e.g. water is generally
used to store heat in solar heating systems and in air based heating systems,
respectively. However, Latent Heat System (LHS) system is considered the most preferred
technique for storing thermal energy due to their wide range of availability of
materials with higher thermal storage density and almost isothermal operation.
Therefore, an effective power consumption management can be achieved by using
LHS system to store the thermal heat or coolness in off-peak loads hours and
use it during peak loads hours.
In Latent heat storage system energy is engrossed or
released in order to change the phase of external fluid with the presence of
Phase Change Material (PCM). The phase change can be carried out for
solid-solid, solid-liquid, solid-gas or liquid-gas. The transformation of
solid-solid has small latent heat when compared with solid-liquid transitions,
while solid-gas and liquid gas have high latent heat. PCMs exhibit certain
desirable thermal, kinetic, physical, chemical and economical properties.
Why we use Paraffin Wax as a PCM?
Paraffin wax is a white or colorless soft solid
material derived from petroleum, coal and other fuels having waxy consistency.
They have high molecular mass with long inline chains of hydrocarbons C31H64.
There is a homogenous mixture of hydrocarbon molecules with various carbon
members having lower melting point and poorer latent heat than pure paraffin.
Paraffin wax can be easily collaborated with LHS system due to its favorable
properties like non-corrosive in nature, safe to use, high effectiveness.
PCM are able to store large amount of heat or cold at
comparatively small temperature change. PCM can therefore be applied to design
heat or cold storages with high storage density, for example in domestic
heating. PCM can store about 3-4 times more energy per volume as is stored as
sensible heat storage in solids or liquids in a temperature interval of 20?.
Heat can be supplied or extracted from a latent heat storage material without
significant temperature change. PCM can therefore be applied to stabilize the
temperature in an application.