The as how it impacts follower motivation and performance”

The concept of “transforming
leadership”, which becomes later “transformational leadership”, was first originated
by James Macgregor Burns in 1978. He defined “transformational leadership” as a
concept where “leaders and their followers raise one another to higher
levels of morality and motivation” (Burns, 1978, p.164). In his research,
Burns dissociated the notion of “management” from “leadership” and claimed that
the differences between these two concepts lie in traits and behaviors. He founded
two concepts: “Transforming Leadership” and “Transactional
Leadership”. According to him, the “transforming approach” generates
important transformations  not only in
the lives of people but also within organizations by redefining insights and principles
??and changing the way people within an organization are expecting thing and standards
to which they aspire. This type of leadership relies more on the
personality of the leader, on his characters and his aptitude to make things
different by having and sharing a motivating vision and setting ambitious objectives,
at the opposite of the second concept ” Transactional
Leadership” that implies relations between the leader and his collaborators
in the sense that they receive their wages or a certain level of prestige for
having complied with the wishes of the leader 
“requires a shrewd eye for opportunity, a good hand at bargaining,
persuading, reciprocating” (Burns, 1978, p.169).

According to the”
transactional leadership” model, relationships between leaders and their team
members are thus conceived of as a form of exchange of “contributions” / “rewards”
or “sanctions” / “rewards” rather than a true form of evolution involving a
form of submission to the leader’s desires. On the contrary,” transformational
leadership” increases the level of motivation of employees through the
attention of their leader (Northouse, 2004).

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Few years afterwards, the concept of transformational
leadership was extended and refined by Bernard M. Bass. “Bass added to the
initial concepts of Burns (1978) to help explain how transformational
leadership could be measured, as well as how it impacts follower motivation and
performance” (Leadership Qualities for Effective Leaders, page 44). He changed the
term “transforming” that has historically been used to “transformational”
and developed further the work done previously by Burns by clarifying the process
that support the two concepts of leadership established by his predecessor; “transforming”
and “transactional”.

In 1985, Bass nonetheless identified a major problem
in Burns’ work, which viewed “transactional” and “transformational” leadership
as the end point of a “continuum”. He finds that there are really two
independent dimensions and that one person can use one of them, the other one,
the two of them or none of them: “transactional leadership and transformational
leadership are two distinct dimensions rather than opposite ends of one continuum”.


               The author has presented a formal
model of “transactional” and “transformational” leadership. The “transformational
leadership” model was based on four factors :”idealized influence,
inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individual consideration”
 (Bass & Riggio page 82). The “transactional”
model was based on “contingent rewards” and “exception management” that
converged toward higher performance expectations (Northouse, 2004).