Task stands for (international organisation for standardisation, is one

Task 1a

What are protocols

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are sort of like rules, they are used worldwide by companies to allow computer
to communicate with each other local and globally. Protocols allow for computer
to say what bit of the conversation they are transmitting and receiving and
when it starts and ends. Protocols are important because they allow for
different company’s products to communicate together with eases as they are all
using the same type of    

Business that control
the protocols

There are
loads of businesses and companies that control the protocols in the world of
networking. Some of the most common ones are:







ISO which
stands for (international organisation for standardisation, is one of the
world’s biggest companies that creating and providing standards they also
provide for the OSI (open systems interconnection) this is a 7 layered model
that was created back in 1984 and was created as the main networking framework
for adding protocol in layers this will controls the flow of protocols that are
being added at one time the layers are split down, with the lower dealing with
the electrical signals, and the binary data. With the more upper layers dealing
with the networks request and response and how data is represented.

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ITU-T stands
for (International Telecommunications Union-Telecommunication) defines elements
in the global infrastructure for ICT. It was first founded in 1865, and has
since been developing standard for the whole globe to follow. It is one of the
oldest and biggest standard creating company’s.



ICANN stands
for (internet corporation for assigned names and numbers) and they are in charge
of unique address so computers can reach another person through the internet.
ICANN was formed in 1998. And is made up of people who are dedicated to keeping
the internet safe and secured


The IEEE stands for Institute of electrical and electronics
engineers. The IEEE spans across 160 countries and has around 423,000 members,
they are the most trusted when it comes to computing, technology and engineering
around the whole world. They are split into different groups that focused on
creating new and improved standards: 802.1
Higher Layer LAN Group, 802.3 Ethernet Group, 802.11 Wireless LAN Group,802.15 Wireless
Personal Area Network WPAN Group, 802.16 Broadband Wireless Access Group,
802.18 Radio Regulatory TAG, 802.19 Wireless Coexistence Group, 802.21 Media
Independent Handover Services Group, 802.22 Wireless Regional Area Networks
Group, 802.24 Smart Grid TAG.




Proprietary protocols

protocols are mainly developed by one company for their own devices which they
make. So it would not be able to work or communicate with another company’s
device like a Microsoft device. For an example AppleTalk is a proprietary
protocol that was developed by the company apple. This protocol was created to
only work on apple devices. Essentially proprietary protocols are privately
owned protocols which only work on the device chosen by that company, and users
must pay for the company to uses them. But it will not allow for users to
communicate with different company’s devices. But some people can develop their
own proprietary protocols for their devices as a means of better security,
allow for only their devices to communicate with each other.



Layered model



Task 1b

Layer 4 protocols


TCP stands
for transmission control protocol; it is a connection orientated protocol and
is able to keep track of the connection between devices. TCP required a direct
connection to a host to be established before it is able to transmit data. TCP
is part of the transport layer of the OSI layer which is in charge of
encapsulating and de-encapsulating segments of data and also assigns pot
numbers to applications. E.g. HTTP – port number: 80, the protocol also uses a
method called the 3-way hand shake to establish a secure connection between two


Flow control

Flow control
is used by the TPC protocol to manage the amount of data that a device can
transmit at one time to the end device, it does this by using the window size
header this allows for the receiving device to tell the transition device how
much data it process in one go. This allows for a control over the network as
not too much is sent a once.



TCP header field

Source port:
this is a number that source device that is randomly created for the
unregistered port range and is used to identify where the transition came from.

port: this is where the data transition need to be sent to and this port number
will be in the range of the well know port range.

Sequence number:
this is a number that will be given to a fragment of data that will tell the
destination device when the start of the sequence of data is arriving. This will
also tell the device when the next segment of data is arriving which will normally
be 1 or more then the last sequence data size. But if data is lost then it will
start at the bit of data that was lost.

number: this is like the opposite to the sequence number as it is the last in the
data fragment to tell the end device that that segment transition has ended

Data offset:
will tell the device the size of the header

Reserved: this
is the area of the header that is set to 0 for any uses in the future.

Control flag:
flags are used to connect device together and terminate them as well.

Window size:
will tell the transition device how the maximum amount of data can be sent
before another sequence number is needed

this is used to check if any of the data is corrupt and to integrity check of
any transmissions.

Urgent pointer:
this is like the window size but it is more for the amount of data an urgent or
high frequency transition need to be sent.

Optional data:
this is saved for any extra data that need to be added on at the end.

3-way handshake

In this process
the first host device will send a synchronisation (SYN) flag to the end device
it is trying to connect to. To go along with this the first device sends a
sequence number with the SYN flag to keep an order to communication. When the
end device get this SYN flag it will send that flag and the sequence number
back to the first host but it will also add and Acknowledgement (ACK) flag, finally
when the host device receives all that it will send a final ACK flag to the end
device to established a full connecting between them. The image below should
show this in an easier way.

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similar to
the 3-way handshake here is also another process called the termination process
but this is for ending/terminating a connection between two devices. The only
big difference between these two process is the device that want to end the
connection send a finish (FIN) flag to the end device. Then the end device
sends a ACK flag back to the first device then it follows it up with a FIN
flag. Finally, the first device sends a final ACK flag and this will
end/terminate their connection together.


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UDP stands
for User Datagram Protocol this known as the best effort, real time protocol as
it has no concern about how your data reaches the end device, in simple term it
just wants to get rid of it as fast as possible and doesn’t care what state it
reaches the end location. UDP is a connectionless protocol so it is no very
reliable when it comes to data transition as there is no dedicated end to end
connection. However, UDP is advantageous when it comes to video and voice
calls, videos and online gaming as all of these require fast connectionless
streaming. As using TCP for these would causes slow bad interaction especial
when it comes to online gaming.


UDP header field

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Source port:
this is a number that source device that is randomly created for the
unregistered port range and is used to identify where the transition came from.

port: this is where the data transition need to be sent to and this port number
will be in the range of the well know port range.

Length: the length
header tells the device how big the packet will be

this is used to check if any of the data is corrupt and to integrity check of
any transmissions.

Data: this
is where that data that will be sent will be put.

Layer 3 protocols

this layer
is that is in charge of the IP protocols which are connectionless protocols
which allow user to transmit and receive data. IP stands for Internet protocol.


IPv4 was
created in 1983 and was the first IP protocol to be created and is a 32 bit is
size and allow for 4,294,967,296 IP address to be allocated to users. But almost
all of these IP have been allocated as more and more people all over the world
are coming online and people owning more than one connected device. IPv4 has
different types of addressing private and public. Private IP addressing can be
used for all device on a single LAN as it can use a IP addressing pool for a
communication outside the network as it will assign a random IP address to this
device for its IP address pool. Private IP addresses have been allocated a
range to fall into these can be used as many times on different private
networks as they are not connected to the internet these are – to to to

Public IP
addressing are globally unique meaning there is only one in the whole world. These
are assigned to a user through there ISP. Public IP address allow for users to
communicate and interact through the network. Apart from the private address
list all other IP addresses are public


IP addressing

The IPv4
address is made up of 4 octets which all contain 8 bits which add up to a total
of 32 bits. And can be broke down into two portions which are the network
portion and the host portion, these identify how big the network is and how
many host IPs are available. The network portion is usually assigned by your
ISP or the by the subnet mask.

Subnet Mask  

the uses of
a subnet are to show how many host are using a network. This is also like an IP
address as it is split down into two parts the network portion and the host portion
for example if you had a subnet of 255.255.0 then the network can have 254 host
on it. and the network portion would be the 255.255.255. and this will tell you
who’s network your computer(s) is on. The network must take away to allocated
spaces from the host portion to allow for the network address and the broadcast
address this is why the example is 254host and not 255 host as it need to take
two off.


NAT stands
for Network Address Translation and it is used in IPv4 addressing to allow a
device on a local network to keep the same address and IP address it was given
from the IP address pool and allow for then to connect to the internet or
another network.



To accommodate
for the growing world and more device need IP address a new IP was created
called IPv6 and this was to relive IPv4 as it was running out of address to
hand out. This is a better and improved version of IPv4 it allows for over 300 Quintilian
address this is because it is made up of 8 Hextets and is 64 bit long which
allow for many different version of address to be created. This IP address can
also be split down into three parts the global routing prefix and the subnet ID
and the Interface ID. An example of this is 2001:0db8:85a3:0000:0000:8a2e:
0370:7334 so to split it down the 2001:0db8:85a3: is the global routing prefix
and this is mainly given to you by your ISP to tell you who’s network your
using. The next bit which is 0000: is called the subnet ID, which is a 16-bit
long subnet ID and this will tell you how many subnets are on your network. And
it will allow up to 65,636 subnets to be created. Then when the Subnet ID and
the global routing prefixed are put together then they make up the subnet
prefix, and final the last bit which will be the 0000:8a2e: 0370:7334 is the
interface ID and basically this bit can be automatically assigned or statically



The IPv6
prefix-length is similar to

Layer 2 protocols

LLC (local link

the LLC operates
at the upper parts of the data link layer of the OSI model, and is standardized
as IEEE 802.2. LLC is used mainly for multiplexing feature, and is used to make
sure that data transmissions keep their integrity. It also controls the
communication between the other layers of the OSI model and to pass packet down
to the physical layer and through the network.



Ethernet protocol is used in both the data link layer and the physical layer on
the OSI layer, and is able large amounts of data with speeds of 10 MBPS or up
to 100MBPS, at a rate of 1500 Bytes per packets. The Ethernet protocol is the
most used protocol on a network. The Ethernet protocol is standardized by the
IEEE 802.3 standard, the protocol also uses two features of transmission which
are Frames and Packets.



Mac sublayer

Media access
control (mac) in the osi layer the mac layer is a communication protocol and is
a sublayer for the data link layer. The mac sublayer allows for addressing and
channel access control, this make it possible for several network nodes to
communicate on multiple access networks that allow foe shared medium. Mac layer
is also responsible for send in packets to and from the NIC (network interface card)
to another one across the network


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