Task 3.1 Materials the spacecraft is made from and the propertiesThe materials that needed for thespacecraft need to have temperature stability, as getting in and out of thesun’s direct heat which then causes the materials to expand or contract. In orderto maintain the size and shape regardless temperature change this process isalso known as the dimensional stability. It is vital that need materials thatare used in space shuttles are thermal protected system.
The structure of thespacecraft will need to survive the tough environmental changes this includesthe high intensity of the radiation and the vacuum of the space. The materialsthat are used in spacecraft need to have high intensity of the strength and thestiffness as weaker structure will damage in the force in space. Materialsweight three times more than the in space comparing to the weight on earth. Itis important that the materials keep the weigh constant so they don’t bend orbreak under the vast forces.Shape and designThere are four parts of the spaceshuttle: an orbiter, two solid rocket booster (they are refillable) and one ofthe external fuel tank (not reusable). The space craft is launches in the spacewith the two solid rocket boosters and the external fuel tank. At the launch,at this point they are three main engines are ablaze (fuelled by the externalfuel tank).
In order to get overcome the earth gravitational pull. The orbiter shape issimilar with the airplane. The parts are quite similar as well however thespacecraft only has engine configuration. The double-delta wings that make itpossible to lift, by the help of these wings the spacecraft is able to make aneffective flight with the hypersonic speed as well creating good lift – to dragratio while landing. To control there is elevon available to control the motionof area. The elevator and ailerons are shared as the elevens and are situatedon the edge of each wing.
The orbiter vertical stabilizer has rudder whichcontrols it’s the nose left, nose right. There is split –rudder on the orbiterworks as a rudder and also as a speed brake. This bends the airflow, increasesdrag and reductions the orbiter’s speed as it will move beside the runway uponarrival. As the orbiter breaks into the earth’s atmosphere, the control surfacerelates with the air molecules and their airflow and their airflow to controlthe orbiter’s flight path. The orbiter has two types of engine that are used tomake the missions successful.
The orbiter manoeuvring system also known as theOMS. The other engine that are used is the reaction control system also knownas the RCS. When the space shuttle manoeuvers in to the orbit it uses the OMS.This is suitable at that point as they are 2 rocket engines that are placedseparately outside of the orbiter, there are place one on each side of thefuselage. This then gives the orbiter the push that it needs to get into move,in order to meet at the space station or even the space shuttle. The orbitalmanoeuvring system is used to break in and out of the earth atmosphere. the other engine permits the commander toachieve the motion of the roll, pitch and yaw while the orbiter is moving outof orbit and to return to the earth’s atmosphere, also the RCS is used whilethe OMS is managing the upper atmosphere.
The space craft needs to havelighter spacecraft in order to have use less fuel to break through thegravitational influence. Fuel usedThe fuel that is approved by theNASA most significant technical accomplishments – liquid hydrogen. Hydrogen islight weight and tremendously strong rocket propulsive. It has the lowestmolecular mass also it burns with the high concentrated (5,5000F). The mixturewith an oxidizer for example liquid oxygen, the liquid hydrogen yields the peakdetailed impulse, or the competence in the link to the mass of the dynamicexpended, of some of the space shuttle propellant. The liquid oxygen and the fluidhydrogen both turn in to fluid at a very low temperature.
The liquid hydrogenshould be stored at -252 oC need to handle with great safety to avoid it fromthe evaporating or boiling off. So the space shuttles fuel must be shieldedfrom any rays of heat such as the engine exhaust and air friction during thetravel over the sky. As it breaks in thespace the heat from sun is engrossed by the hydrogen it then swells quickly soit is vital to escaping the storage to burst. As the metals being exposed togreater cold temperature the liquid hydrogen becomes more brittle, likewise thehydrogen can escape through minor pores in the welded layers. In order to avoidany difficulties, it need a higher knowledge in spacecraft and aircraft fuels.
CostsThe estimated cost by the NASA is$1.7 billion. The average mission would cost $450 million to launch.Methods of communication used and their limitationThe communication carrierassembly also known as the CCA have many disadvantages.
As the multiple capsizes need to be accessible to different astronauts, as they have differenthead shapes and size. The cap needs to be inserted in a place where there is enoughspace for the cap. The cap is needs to be inserted where it doesn’t get in theway of the astronaut vision.
It needs to be placed were it is comfortable forthe astronaut. This is important as ifthe microphones move around the communication service can be in fault. The boom microphone can affect astronautdaily route for example feeding and drinking mechanism during the long durationspacewalk. The high temperature can affect the communication service as the sweatmay affect the machinery part of the CCA. Another method the way astronaut maycommunicate is the audio system, they have launched and placed in the audiosystem that is already inserted in the helmet. It is when the microphone andthe earphones are placed inside the space suit instead of the helmet, this newproduct can solve many limitations that the CCA presents such as there is noproblem for the maintenance.
As it is placed in the side suite the sound can bedisturbed that is created from inside of the suit like the vibration of the spacecraft.Hazards such as the extreme temperature, micro – meteorites,radiation and other dangers A thermal protection system TPSis inserted in order to prevent them from the aerodynamic heating, this isproduced from the surface area of a launching an entity into the compressionand surface friction of the atmospheric gas. The vehicle’s formation and theentry in to the track in the mixture with the TPS, it is used to identify thetemperature spreading on the space craft.Space shuttle that contains a TPSsystem that is stated on the use of surface material with high intensity of thetemperature with the mixture of a fundamental thermal lining to prevent thepassing into the inside of the space craft.The heat that is generated fromthe aerodynamic heating development is then radiated hind into the universe bythe quality of the high external temperature.
There are selective materialsthat have the properties that are efficient in space such as the temperaturecapability, duration, high melting point and weight that limits the level of the functions. Toimprove the quality of the space craft materials have been the main focus toresearch as they boosted the capacity material like the grander thermal shockopposition and minor thermal conductivity, improves the thermal protectionmaterials and to have a higher successful rate to fulfil the mission. The moreimproved the TPS rate will show have minor harms that will happen to theastronauts.The effects of the space travel on humansThere is an increasing risk ofradiation in space for humans, as on earth we are secured by the planet shieldalso known as the magnetic field that surrounds the earth which is why we areprotected from the dangerous rays coming from the sun and the space.
In the space the radiation is aform of the atoms particles that are launched from the sun and the space. As the speed of the space craft can affectthe DNA molecules which then cause cancer and other serious disease as themolecules are splitting with in them.Recently, the high level ofradiation has been identified collected by the space flight of the mars.
On average, on Earth we are visible to aroundabout 3 millisievert of radiation in a year. Where as in the average of sixmonths the astronaut is exposed to estimably 100 millisievert. So theprotection shield some absorbs some amount