Children are not able to understand/use these rules correctly, its Starts from toddlers communicating by pointing at an bject and saying a single word as to what it is or what they would like, after they learn this they then start to construct sentences. E. g. saying “drink” into saying “can have a drink? ” As early as six weeks a baby will start to communicate by making a ‘cooing’ noise, this is to show pleasure. Babies will them go on to start babbling (learning the tune before the words) this is between the ages of six to nine months. Babies will make a large variety of sounds during this point of time this even includes deaf babies.
They will begin to make the tuneful sounds by putting vowels and consonants ogether. Between the ages of nine to ten months babies begin to make sounds also known as babbling, but at this time these sounds are limited, the noises (babbles) the baby makes are reflecting the language that the baby is hearing from their surroundings. Babies at the age of ten months can also understand at least seventeen or more words. Babies will have learned how to gain an adults attention at this time too, they will do this by pointing and raising their voices.
Babies will read facial expression to help them understand further what is being said to them by an adult. Babies start oving on from the babble, onto an extended babble also called ‘Echolalia’ it has no meaning to it, and it is just repetition of sounds made by another person. This is the step just before babys first words (usually around 12months) the first words may be unclear but will gradually evolve, these words/sounds will be used in usual/parallel circumstances, babbling will continue while baby is learning his/her first words.
Communication: Communication can be viewed as an ‘umbrella term’ as it combines language and speech, it consists of facial expression, body language and gesture as well as language and speech. Communication is a way of sending signals to one another and understanding one another. Babies begin to learn how to communicate as soon as they are born. Babies start by crying, they learn that their cries are responded to or understood by an adult. Babies’ cries change depending on their needs (parents soon work out their babys cries and learn what they mean e. g. baby is tired, hungry or even bored. Facial expressions, body language and tone of voice are quickly learned and studied by babies, they soon start to respond to these actions. E. g. baby smiles or laughs at adults smiling at them. Babies will also cry if they were to hear an angry tone. By the age of one (1 2 months) babies are able to show interest in certain objects by pointing or smiling/laughing at them, recognising when adults/ older children are happy and they can also turn their head away to show they are no longer interested or not hungry anymore, this is also when a baby will start to use Echolalia, this will slowly turn into speech.
Speech: A child’s speech will normally be learned by the time the child would start to master the written language. Where speech is a vocalised language, it is spoken in sounds. It will depend on the language the child is learning on how many sounds the child will have to learn and master. By 18 months, most toddlers have at least 10 words. Between 18 and 24 months toddlers start to fuse together words to create small sentences of few words, key words are also recognised and chosen by the toddlers to help with their sentence for example – ‘dada gone’ or ‘dada come. Children’s language will develop briskly between the ages of 24 and 36 months. The child will begin to use more complex formations in their speech, this is where negatives and also plurals are starting to be used. When the child is between three to four years old their sentences will become longer, also their vocabulary persists to grow. The next stage in the child’s speech would be fluency, this usually occurs between the ages of four to six years old, and this is where the chid will have overcome the essential skills of the language, children may still make few urtuous errors. When the child is between six and eight years old they will begin to use words to communicate their views/feelings even though some do this by raising their voice. Also during this time the child’s level of lingo is ssential to their acquiring the skills of reading and writing. Speech, language and communication needs: Speech, language and communication needs can be complication pronouncing certain sounds/letters, this would be a difficulty in speech. If a child was to have difficulty with making eye contact or would not appreciate company from others then they may have more of a global communication need.
If a child has speech, language and/or communication difficulties then it may slow them down in terms of development, it is likely to be that the child will have difficulties, the child will be contingent on the ature of their difficulty and how they are supported. Having difficulties with speech, language and communication can have an effect on the child as they get older. 1. 2 Learning: A child must be able to understand the language that is being spoken to them to be able to learn further. The child should be able to communicate with the adult who is to teach them (have a basic convocation or at least understand what they are saying. Even if the child can understand/ read facial expression from the adult they will be able to work out whether the explanation is positive or negative e. g. s the adult is smiling when saying something or showing an object to the child they will then think of it is a good/pleasant thing. Being able to tell an adult one, or few words, the child can negotiate to the adult what they want or if they do not understand. The child may do this by frowning and holding their hands out with elbows bent (showing confusion or asking ‘what? ) the child will have picked this up from adults while developing their basic communication skills.
Most children can have basic convocations from the age of two onwards, even if they use just two or three word sentences. The child can comprehend main/key words to be able to make their sentence make some sense to the adult. Emotional: As a child’s language skills develop, they find it easier to show emotions. It also helps when children need to talk about/explain their feelings to an adult after an outburst or tantrum or any situation showing their anger, jealousy and/or frustration. Talking through their feelings can help to reduce future outbursts/tantrums.
The adult and child can work together to overcome these feelings and make the child feel better and more comfortable with the situation. It’s a good idea to introduce/show children different types of feeling e. g. happy, sad, angry, and excited. This will help children get a better understanding of their emotions and can find other ways to express their feeling rather than using just physical reactions. In our setting we help to show the children different feelings/emotions by showing them different cards with characters on them, these cards are put up around the room so the children can see them at all times.
Children also work with these cards when doing one to one work with their keyworker, for example, we would how the child the card and talk to them about the emotion on the card. So if took the card with ‘happy’ on it, I would ask the child to show me a happy face (child would put on a smile or grin, sometimes they will laugh) and then go on to ask them what makes them happy etc. Behaviour: A child’s language skills help them to control their behaviour, it helps the child think over their actions.
The child would start to think things through before doing something, such as pointing at certain objects and saying ‘no’ when they have been told not to touch/play with it, e. . plug sockets. Children could also tell other children no, when they go towards the object that they have been told not to touch, this shows the child’s understanding and that they think about the consequences that may occur if they go against what their parent/carer has told them. A child’s behaviour changes when they gain control of their language skills, this helps them to speak to an adult and tell them what is wrong or what has happened.
Social: Emotional development helps to build up the child’s social development. Children learn to amend their behaviour ccording to others feelings around them. Communication plays a fair part in a child’s social development. Communication skills help the child to understand and pick up social codes, it also helps with their behaviour. Children will have a tendency to communicate and tell you what they are doing through speech, and will have to be able to understand (read) body language from others to be able to respond suitably.
Potential impact of speech, language and communication difficulties on the overall development of a child (currently and long-term): These difficulties could cause problems or the child (in short-term) for example getting angry when not being able to understand or do something, the child could also experience difficultly when making friends or when joining a friendship circle, the child could have low levels of confidence and make it hard for themselves to be understood.
This also effects future learning as it is difficult for the child to maintain new information and applying information to new situations, this could also make the child frustrated. There are also long-term effects for children with these difficulties. Some of these effects may be having a low self-esteem, becoming isolated and not reaching their independence. Children could develop an anti- social behaviour and find it hard to maintain relationships.
Understand the importance and the benefits of adults supporting the speech, language and communication development of the children in own setting. Ways in which adults can effectively support and extend speech, language and communication development of children during early years: There are many ways in which adults can support children in the early years, it is important or adults to acknowledge the communications made by children as well as looking for ways to support the child so that they can make further progress.
One way could be when talking to the child, use exaggerated facial expressions and also pointing at objects in which you are having a conversation about to help the child to understand/work out your meaning. It is important to simplify your language when speaking to a young child or baby. Another way in stimulating and extending a child’s speech is using questions, this helps the child see that you are interested in what they are oing and thinking. Rhetorical questions can also be used, it helps with children who cannot say much, it helps to make the child feel part of the convocation.
Closed questions are a good Idea to use with children who do not speak much or have a speech impediment as it is a one word answer that is needed either being yes or no. on the other hand open questions help the child to think critically as they need longer answers, an open question to a child may be “what shall we do today? ” open questions are thought to be better for the child as it requires them to think whereas closed-questions are ust yes/no/good/bad etc. Open questions enable children to express themselves. The amount of closed questions used by an adult to a child should be numbered (few).
Games and toys help with children’s understanding, for example a child givingyou a toy and the adult saying “thank you” the child will then take the toy away, this will ensure the child is understanding how to have fun with communication and also taking turns and eye contact as well as interpreting expressions. Early years settings should also plan activities or have books that will help with a child’s speech. Activities to help children with speech could be making an experience for them, one activity could be the game Mr.
Bear, and the children have to call out to the child playing Mr. Bear and then ‘Mr Bear’ has to ask the children who has his honey in which the children will answer with yes or no. Relevant positive effects of adult support for the children and their carers: Settings will prepare sessions for the parents to let them know the importance of their role in their child’s development as they are their child’s first educators, these essions are also to help build the parents confidence within the setting and the staff.
Both parents and the settings staff will have to work together to help with children whom have specific speech and language needs or any other need. The aim of these sessions is to help promote positive effects within the child’s learning, some of these may be social interaction, better behaviour, and more speech, and language and communication skills, also emotional development. How levels of speech and language development vary between children entering early year’s provision and need to be taken into account during ettling and planning: When a child begins at your setting you would take their age and ability into account.
You would learn about whether or not they have difficulties with speech, language or communication and development by having one to one meetings/sessions with parents. You would then make plans and activities for the child (based on what you know about the child) e. g. Makaton for children with speech and language difficulty, using actions could help the child to understand more. Plans will adapt as the child’s learning journey goes on and you begin to know the child better.