Superior as a psychological of internal process initiated by

achievement in any sphere of life is not always a result of favourable
environmental conditions, economic well-being or extraordinary intelligence.
All that needed is a passion coupled with huge zeal and determination. History
of mankind is a witness of such individuals who could achieve extraordinary
success in their life despite of so many hurdles or obstacles. All the
achievements made by such individuals emerged from ‘Motivated behaviour.’

Motivation is then described as a state that directs, energises
and sustains goal directed behaviour. It is an internal state
that arouses us to action, pushes us in particular directions, and keeps us
engaged in certain activities. Motivation is
said to be the ‘heart of learning’, ‘royal road to learning’ and a ‘potent
factor in learning’ as all learning is motivated learning.

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the word motivation has been derived from the Latin word movers which means ‘to move.’ Thus, motivation is an internal force
which accelerates a response or behaviour. It is an art of inculcating and
stimulating interest in studies and in other such activities.


C.F. Skinner: “Motivation in school learning involves arousing,
persisting, sustaining, and directing desirable behaviour.”

H.W. Bernard: “Motivation is the stimulation of actions towards
a particular objective where previously there was little or no attraction to
that goal.”

J.W. Atkinson: “Motivation refers to the arousal of tendency to
act to produce one or more effects.”

Crow and Crow: “Motivation is considered with the arousal of the
interest in learning which is essential for learning.”

K. Lowell: “Motivation may be defined more formally as a
psychological of internal process initiated by some need, which leads to the
activity which will satisfy that need.”

Maslow: “Motivation is the universal characteristic of every
organism state of affair. It is constant, never ending, fluctuation and complex

C.V. Good: “Motivation is the process of arousing sustaining
and regulating activity.”

Thus, motivation is
some kind of internal force which arouses or initiates action on the part of
the organisms.

Characteristics of Motivation

1.      Psychological process: Motivation
is a psychological or internal process.

2.      Need: The internal process is initiated by a need or

3.      Activity: The internal process is directed towards some

4.      Satisfaction: The activity satisfies the need or want.

5.      Eagerness: Curiosity or eagerness is is a must.

6.      Attention: Attention is concentrated in motivation.

7.      Persistence: Persistency in work is shown in motivation.

8.      Energy mobilization: Motivation brings energy mobilization.

9.      Continuous process: Motivation is a continuous process because human
needs are unlimited and fulfillment of one set of needs gives rise to another
set of needs.

10.  Goal directed behaviour: Motivation is concerned with goal directed
behaviour. Motivation
directs an individual toward certain goals

Aspects or Sources of

1.      Need: It is the lack of
something which is experienced by the organism. Needs are associated with goal.
Among human beings needs are relatively permanent tendencies which seek their
satisfaction in achieving certain specific goals. Needs are of two types:

Physiological needs: These are the needs which
are essential for survival. Fro example:

Need for food, water, oxygen

Need for rest

Need for shelter

Need for elimination of all sorts

Psychological needs: These are the needs 

Need for freedom

Need for security

Need for prestige or self-esteem

Need for love and affection

Need for identification

Need for companionship etc.

2.      Motive: Motive refers to
something that arouses behaviour and directs it towards specific goal. For
example hunger results in behaviour directed towards obtaining food. When
motives viewed as forces that push you into action or forces that pull you into
action are called drives or incentives.

3.      Drive: Drive is a need or
motive that arouses behaviour and pushes a person into action. For example, the
hunger drive pushes you to obtain food.

4.      Incentive: Incentive is a goal
or condition that you strive to obtain, something that pulls a person into
action. For example, praise, money, grade etc. Incentives are said to pull you
into action because they occur in the future.



Motivation Cycle

Motivation is the
state of organism which is initiated by some need that moves or drives the
organism from within and directs the activities to a goal for the satisfaction
of the need.





















Motivated  Behaviour





Goal seeking





Figure: Motivation


1.      Need: First
of all there is a need, desire or want.

2.      Motive: Need,
desire or want gives rise to drive or motive.

3.      Tension: Drive
is state of heightened tention leading to restless activity.

4.      Motivated behaviour: The
tention so produced due to drive or motive motivates the organism to act to
reduce drive or motive.

5.      Goal Directed Behaviour: In
this way behaviour becomes goal-directed.

the goal: At last, organism reaches the desired
goal and his drive or motive is satisfied in the form of an incentive.  

vs. Intrinsic Motivation

Different types of motivation are frequently
described as being either extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic
motivations are those that arise from outside of the individual and often
involve rewards such as trophies, money, social recognition, or
praise. Intrinsic motivations are those that arise from within the
individual, such as doing a complicated crossword puzzle purely for the
personal gratification of solving a problem.

Importance of Motivation
in Learning

Arouses interest: Motivation is an art of
generating interest in students. Hence, teacher can arouse interest in the students.

Maintaining curiosity: A skilful teacher will use a
variety of means to further arouse or maintain curiosity in the course of the

Motivation is a spark: Motivation is a spark that sets the fire in the
students for superior achievements.

Motivation is an energy: Motivation increases an individual’s energy and
activity level. It energises the behaviour of the students towards the
achievement of goal.

Develops social qualities: Motivation helps in the development of social

Directs behaviour: Motivation directs an individual behaviour toward certain goals. Motivation affects
choices people make and the consequences they find reinforcing.

promotes initiation: Motivation promotes initiation of certain activities and
persistence in those activities. It increases the likelihood that people will begin
something on their own initiative, persist in the face of difficulty, and
resume a task after a temporary interruption. 

Helpful in sustaining
attention: Motivation helps in sustaining attention of the
students. It
increases the attention span of the students in teaching-learning
process. It also increases the likelihood that they will seek help
when they encounter difficulty.