Stress is a pattern of negative physiological statesand psychological response which happens within circumstances where peopleperceive threats to their well-being, enforcing whether athletes may be unableto meet. Stress has two categories which have been introduced within sportsperformance these categories are eustress and distress. Eustress is considered a good form of stress thatprovides a sense of fulfilment within performance, however some athletes takein worrying situations within their own hands as they like a test offorcefulness towards themselves.
This can enforce athletes to boost theirsporting ability within that particular stressful period and can also focus onparticular aspects within the sport. Eustress is beneficial as it also buildupon intrinsic motivation. Distress is considered as a bad form of stress as itproduces dangerous anxiety levels to occur like nervousness, apprehension andworry, these particular traits can enforce a decrease within sports performancecausing athletes not to meet the needs due to excessive stress levels.
Anxiety– Anxiety is an undesirable sentiment where levels of concern and worry occurwithin individual experiences.Anxietyis sensitive state that regulates the stages of nervousness, apprehension andconcern upon individual within variety of ways, for example sports performerssuch as Cristiano Ronaldo may vary anxiety towards major event such as theChampions League causing a lot of pressure to occur upon them not only the teambut also particular sports individuals such as Cristiano Ronaldo. Thereare two types of anxiety which are Trait Anxiety and State Anxiety TraitAnxietyTraitanxiety is an immovable and permanent form of anxiety, which significantquantity of individuals suffer from because their nervous system iscontinuously repetitive and also active. People who tend to have trait anxietyare usually conceived to have anxiety disorder which constantly demonstratesymbols of anxiousness and uneasiness through unthreatening situations. Traitanxiety is adapted into ordinary individuals which means they are born with it.Traitanxiety is an everlasting immovable thing, which is built up as humancharacteristic many individuals seem to suffer from it. For example snookerplayer ‘Rocky’ Ronnie O’Sullvian has suffered trait anxiety on numerous occasionswhich causes him to extract himself from major competitions.
The anxiety hasgot to him so much he has also considered of retiring from the sport itself.Ronnie O’Sullvian has never seemed to overcome his anxious abilities.StateAnxiety Stateanxiety is momentary form of anxiety, which occurs upon specific situationscausing the individuals to feel nervous and anxious while triggering theirnervous system. For example, a competitive 100m sprinter may vary elevation ofstate anxiety before be releasing from their individual blocks whilst startingthe race, as the race kicks in they begin to settle and have a change inmentality to win the race. Stateanxiety is brief form of anxiety, which is built up as human characteristic manypeople tend to condone state anxiety at particular times and situations, whichmakes the person feel anxious and uncomfortable.
For example a sportingindividual who may suffer state anxiety at times would be Usain Bolt as he’swon so many 100m races, he may be anxious and uncomfortable that he may havethe mentality to lose his upcoming event running event making him feel unstablewhen coming towards the event which leads to cognitive behaviour. Stresshas variety of causes & symptoms which can be individualised, however thesecauses can be influenced internally and also externally. It’s a collective to having many athletes bein similar situations when it comes towards facing different measures ofstress, stress responses tend change due to tour surroundings causing internal& external fazes. Internal causes towards stress could be illnesses such asinfections, having sleepless nights, constantly worrying about something,wanting to be a perfectionist at particular in sport and so on. External causes towards stress could be yoursurroundings you may find yourself in, life events such as death, everydayhassles and also hearing undesirable social interactions being made by otherpeople about you. Furthermore when you discover yourself within a threateningposition your stress responses activate, however the way you answer alters uponhow you insight the threat which is responded in two categories the sympatheticnervous system or parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervoussystem is responsible for the ‘fight or flight’ response, which triggers you tooppose the threat or run away from the fellow threat. The sympathetic nervoussystem also introduces physiological responses like sweating, slowed digestionand also increased heart rate.
Anxietyis a dismissive emotional state that is disguised by association or evenfeelings, these feelings can alter towards nervousness, apprehension or evenworry. There are two significant categories for anxiety these anxieties aretrait anxiety and also state anxiety. Trait anxiety is considered as a featureof personality and also individuals behavioural patterning. Individuals withelevated levels of trait anxiety are more likely to suffer worriedness throughvarious situations they may find themselves within, for example CristianoRonaldo and also his fellow teammates may have had altercations within theirperformances due to knowing its champions league final.
State anxiety is ashort-term emotional response that occurs towards any situation thatindividuals may find themselves within that may be contemplatedthreatening. For example Usain Bolt mayexperience significant amounts of state anxiety as the entire arena isexpecting him to win which builds huge amounts of pressure and anxiety towardshim before he even performs the 100m sprint, however once performing the 100msprint his state anxiety can rectify or even decrease significantly. Arousalis known as the physiological state of alertness and expectation that arrangesthe body to prepare for productivity. Arousal is not either an advantage or disadvantage as it enforcesphysiological operations such as sweating & a increased heart rate tooccur.
Physiological activity is alsointroduced such as having an enhanced attention span. Arousal is usually reviewed within continuums with one sidebeing deep sleep and other being excessive enthusiasm. Athletes who tend to be aroused are those whoare mentally and physically triggered to participateThe Drive Theory, industrialised by Clark LeonardHull, he implemented that there is a direct relationship among arousal andperformance.
Therefore if a sports performer becomes more aroused, theirperformance levels enhance and increase due to arousal. If not aroused thesports performer performance will be tremendously low and rubbish.The Drive Theory is used to determine the levels ofarousal whilst physically performing this directs the authentic relationshipamongst arousal and performance.
For example if Cristiano Ronaldo had pre-aroused himself before amajor game his performance levels will intensively increase and enhance due tothe arousal. However if he wasn’t capable of pre-arousing himself his sportsperformance will be tremendously low andrubbish causing him to not excel for example missing golden opportunities. I was playing within abasketball game for my secondary school team which enforced me to be alert andaware of all my surroundings causing my arousal levels to increase and also didmy performance status. The inverted U hypothesis, established by Robert MYerkes and John D Dodson, advises that altitudes of arousal increase,performance will expand and rally only to an optimal point. Passing the peakand socket of the optimal point will decrease the level of arousal diminishingsteadily.The inverted U hypothesis is used to conclude thelevels of arousal increase; once presentation been advised it will enlarge andunite towards an optimal point. Fleeting the optimal point will diminish thelevel of arousal progressively.
For example Cristiano Ronaldo could beexcelling within a game by scoring a hat-trick in the first half due to great raise of performance and arousal causingthem to bond and reach optimal level, however too much altitudes of arousal cancause decrease within it causing him not to perform as well as he did beforefirst half. I was playing within afootball game for my secondary school team and my optimal arousal was risentowards the half-time period helping me score two goals, however afterhalf-time period my entire performance decreased significantly enforcing me toget subbed off. TheCatastrophe Theory, was by Lew Hardy and JA Fazey, works in comparable way justlike the inverted U hypothesis, however it tends to be more advanced and interactivewhich effects arousal, cognitive anxiety, and performance. The Catastrophetheory federates once the optimum level of performance has been grasped by thesports performer, any additional levels of arousal combined with an upsurge incognitive anxiety will cause the sports performer to crash dramatically. TheCatastrophe Theory is used in similar way just like the inverted U hypothesis,on the other hand it tends to be more advanced which significantly hurtspossessions of arousal.
For example Cristiano Ronaldo could beexcelling within a game by scoring in the first 15 minutes due to great raiseof performance and arousal causing combination to link and reach optimal level.However extra levels of arousal combined with an expansion in cognitive anxietycan cause Cristiano Ronaldo to crash immensely causing him to loseconcentration and doubts on his personal performance. Iwas playing within a football game for my Sunday league team and I wassurpassing my usually performance status within the first 35 minutes within thegame, however I started to panic throughout certain aspects within the gamecausing my performance to crash immensely and significantly. Strengths& WeaknessesAnadvantage of the drive theory is this theory is very basic and simplistic, inorder to understand which is very beneficial as not many theories are basic andsimple. Another advantage of the drivetheory is that this theory is scientifically proven therefore many examples aregiven as well as shown within the drive theory. Anweakness of the drive theory is that this particular theory is outdated,therefore this theory may not be in use or even be reliable anymore due to thefact its out of date.
Another weakness would be this theory doesn’t prove anyindividual differences, as individuals act different towards situations andalso the environment they find themselves within. Strengths& Weaknesses An advantage of the inverted u hypothesistheory is that they have different perspective towards other theories such asthe drive theory, as they believe that motivation and also behaviour play asignificant part with their theory unlike the drive theory. Another advantageof the inverted u hypothesis is that this theory is scientifically proventherefore many examples are given as well as shown within the theory. Anweakness of the inverted u hypothesis is that this particular theory isoutdated, therefore this theory may not be in use or even be reliable anymore. Aweakness that the inverted u hypothesis theory shows is that it tends to be areductionist due to the fact it doesn’t justify as well as explain certainaspects within theory such as decreasing stage of the continuum.