SOFTWARE is very crucial how we are estimating the




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As all of
you know project management is how we are delivering a product to the client.
That means managing the project with efficient processes through applying
knowledge, skills. Based on these processes one can estimate how much efficient
the software product.


Importance of time, scope, cost:

of a project is mostly deals with time, cost, scope. Why these are mostly deal?
Suppose time is the very important parameter while considering project because
completing the project within time frame involves time management. Likewise maintaining
and managing cost also very important  because
it is very crucial how we are estimating the project cost and how we are
managing cost if any problem occurs during project.

Coming to scope
of the project, it is what will be the needs of that particular project and
what deliverables we are giving to the client.


Asses the
project having lots of phases. Project completion involves mostly 9 core
functions. These are also called knowledge areas of a project.

management involves several stages. Those are

1. Project initiation

2. Project planning

3. Project Execution

4 .Project monitoring and controlling

5. Project closing


these phases with core functions leads to proper project management. Lets
discuss with these phases.

Project initiation:

In this
phase we will conclude that what are the basic requirements to do a
project,  also who are involved,
architecture and project charter and writing business case are to be pulled


Project Planning:

gathered requirements we are proceeding with planning. Based on these
requirements we can come to know that what will be the scope of the project.

After scope
planning we will go for work break down structure (WBS).

What is Work Break Down Structure(WBS)?

requirement of WBS is gathering information/requirements about activities
involved in a project.


Requirement specification                 WBS                 Processes        Time
&Cost Estimation


WBS is build
based on the product, product then divided into sub tasks. Grouping related
tasks give work package.


Time and Cost Estimation of a Project:

The main
constraint here is limited time and budget given for project. So the project
manager should arrange the time and cost for a project to finish it within time
frame and budget.

There are so
many techniques to estimate efforts (Time, Cost) of project. Out of those
techniques we are discussing Delphi Technique and 3-Point Estimation.

a.3-Point Estimation:

            In this project manager gives
optimistic, pessimistic and most likely  estimates of time for each process.

b.Delphi Technique:

            In this selected experts are there.
Project manager will give requirements to them. The experts will find out the
estimation and send it to the project manager. Project then checks the
estimations and send it back to the experts if any modification required.


Scheduling Project:

After all
activities/tasks time and cost estimations, we have to find out how one activity
is depending on the other activity. For finding out  this dependencies we are using Critical path
method and Program Evaluation and Review Technique.  

a.Critical Path Method(CPM):

the duration we are using Critical Path Method. This will be useful to meet
project schedule expectations. It is the easiest and shortest path among
activities to finish the project in less span of time.


b.Program Evaluation and Review
Technique :

Using 3-point
estimation by PERT we can find out the duration of activities. There is a
formula for duration. i.e.




Project Execution:

After project planning done, approval has to be there. If it
is approved then implementation of planning is to be there. This is called
Project Execution.

Most of the project time spends in this phase. In this phase
involves dividing the work activities among team members, provide resource to
them, team meeting to asses the progress and measuring team productivity.


Project Monitoring and Controlling:

While executing the project there should be continuous
monitoring is required. Because if any misleading happens it directly affects
the time and cost estimations. So continuous monitoring should be there if any
problem occurs take control over it.

Project Close:

This phase has deployment of the project activities in each
core functions. On successful completion of all these activities leads to
project completion.