Smallscale industries have limited space in every countries. In 21stcentury every production have been quicker due to innovation in technology butthis headway requests more investments. Expanding the productivity is one ofthe fundamental requirement of production and design engineering in any kind ofmanufacturing industry.
It can be achieved either by decreasing the machiningtime or by increasing the capability and efficiency of machine to produce the productat the same time. In a recent time the machines accessible in the market arefor the single purpose utilize. For example drilling a hole we need drillingmachine, for cutting we need hacksaw machine. The machine which can operateevery single operations is available in the market however every one operationsworking at a same time is not available without changing of instrument or tool.We can overcome the problem of more land space required, heavy powerconsumption and large amount of manpower required.
Byintroducing multipurpose operating machine we can perform various operationslike cutting, drilling and shaping by the help of different combination ofmechanical mechanisms to transmit the power or feed from one tool to another. Themultipurpose operating machine can conduct all the operations simultaneously onthe materials like wood and soft metals. This type of machine can also use theinversion of mechanical mechanism. This machine can use different type of gears,belt drive, pulley, shaft, electric motor, cutting disk, grinding wheel, drillingmachine and mechanism to merge different machining operations into one. MECHANISMThebasic physical or chemical process that are responsible to carried outparticular action which is known as mechanism.
Mechanism is useful to transferpower to one body to another. TYPESOF MECHANISMHereare some mechanism that are useful in day by day life and they are as Gears, geartrain, chain drive, belts and pulley, lever, wheel and axle, cams and screwjack.KINEMATICFOUR BAR CHAIN MECHANISMKinematicfour bar chain mechanism consist of four chain. All four links areinterconnected and the first link connected to last link as well. They all haverelative motion to each other.
INVERSIONOF MECHANISMWecan fix any link from kinematic chain which is known as inversion of mechanism.By fixing different link at a time we can get different relative motion orpower with respect to each other.BELTDRIVE WITH PULLEYPulleyare one of the common mechanism to lift the heavy loads and transmitting thepower across two or more different shafts .Two pulleys attached with flexiblebelt rotating over its circumference.
Pulleys are useful in variety of places.Two pulleys makes a mechanism called belt drive. Belts and pulleys aregenerally useful to transmitting power to longer distance. Driving factor ofpulley and belt is fricrionSPURGEAR MECHANISMItis the most common gear mechanism that are available. They are classified bytheir teeth. Teeth are at 90o to each other. Spur gear cannot be usedwhen the angle between two shafts is changed.
Spur gear is a less expensive andefficient.HELICALGEAR MECHANISMHelicalgears are equivalent to the spur gear instead of the teeth are placed at anangle rather than similar to shaft. The length of teeth is longer than spurgear. Angle of teeth is known as helix angle. Main disadvantage of helical gearmechanism is that it is more expensive and production of it is more difficultthan spur gear.
It can transmit higher power ratio.RACKAND PINION MECHANISMRackand pinion gear mechanism are used to transmit power through right angle. Rackis a small gear consist with teeth on its boundary. Pinion is a shaft havingthread of its entire length. It can converts rotational motion to longitudinalmotion. The use of it is limited but this mechanism can provide betterprecision than other gear mechanism.
BEVELGEAR MECHANISM Bevel gear are gears where the axis of therotation of two cross and intersecting tooth-bearing face of the gearsthemselves are conical shaped. Bear gears are also known as angle gear. Beargears are frequently mounted on a shafts that are 90 degree separated but inany case, it can be intended to work at different angles also. This gear is an excellent choice for cross andintersecting choice.
SCOTCHYOKE MECHANISMAscotch yoke mechanism is one the type of mechanical inversion mechanism whichcan converts rotational movement to straight movement or the way around byutilize a pin moving in a slot. This mechanism have two turning pair and twosliding pair.Multipurposeoperating machine consist of cast iron stand with four legs. Power istransmitted by electric motor to the small pulley with belt drive. Centre ofsmall pulley is attached with drill chuck, where it can perform drillingoperation with different drill size. Small pulley is connect to the largepulley with belt drive.
Large pulley is connect to the shaft. Other end ofshaft is attach with the disk of scotch yoke mechanism. The links of scotchyoke mechanism are connected in such a way that they transmit power in forwardand reverse motion with the help of shaft, where it can perform hacksaw cuttingand metal shearing operation.Materialthat can be used for setup is as bellow. MATERIAL QUANTITY Stand with four legs 1 Shaft 2 Pulley 1 Bevel gear 1 Bearings 4-6 Electric motor 1 Shaping tool 1 Drill bits As per diameter required Hacksaw Blade As per requirements Belt 2 Drill chuck 1 ADVANTAGE· Totaltiming of machining process can be reduced.· Multipleoperations can be performed simultaneously.· Productionrate can be increased.· Toolsetup time can be reduced.
· Lessmanpower required.· Powerconsumption is low· Lowspace required· Flexibilityof operation can be increasedCONCLUSIONThemain reason of this research is to fulfil the different needs of machiningoperations like to decrease the time of machining, to utilize the minimum inputfor maximum production, to reduce man power and to increase production rate. Asthe production requirement gets increased day by day, this research require further study and a few upgrades thatcan turn multipurpose operating machine into marginable benefit to theorganization with lowest cost and higher production