Self-SilencingTheory Grounded in theself-silencing model of female personality advancement (Chodorow, 1978;Gilligan, 1982; Jack, 1987a; Jordan, Kaplan, Miller, Stiver, and Surrey, 1991;Miller, 1976) and affected by communitarian inquire about with her tutor, CarolGilligan, analyzing females’ loss of self seeing someone, Jack (1987a, 1987b, 1991)built up the self-silencing hypothesis of wretchedness in women. Theaccompanying survey of the writing here will feature hypothetical suggestions,ideas, and research correlated to the comprehension of self-silencinghypothesis and its application to mental pain experienced by females. To startwith, self-silencing hypothesis will be investigated trailed by an outline ofresearch discoveries and conclusions put forward by Gilligan and her associates(Brown and Gilligan, 1992; Gilligan, 1982; Gilligan et al., 1991). Inconclusion, ideas and research related particularly to self-hushing hypothesiswill be inspected.
As opposed to different societies around the world thatobserve a feeling of association as the sociocultural perfect, Western socialorders, especially the United States, lift up singular self-governance andaccomplishment as the sine qua non of passionate and social prosperity.Subsequently, broadly acknowledged mental speculations of character andidentity improvement, including the Eriksonian model show (Erikson, 1968),emerged from these esteemed Western esteems embracing rough independence.Inside the Erikson model of character advancement, it is proposed that amidyouthfulness people must separate mentally from their folks and not depend uponthem to impact their own esteems with a specific end goal to accomplish a soundfeeling of self. Defenders of the self-inrelation demonstrate (Chodorow, 1978;Gilligan, 1982; Jack, 1987a; Jordan et al.
, 1991; Miller, 1976) essentiallycan’t help contradicting the utilization of this Eriksonian model to female 28character advancement. Moreover, Gilligan et al. (1991) fought that thepropensity for pre-adult females to slander their own particular discernmentsand convictions negates Erikson’s conceptualization that partition prompts amore grounded feeling of self.Not at all likeErikson’s model, the self-in-relation model does not see mental individuationfrom one’s folks as a forerunner to solid personality arrangement in women.
Rather, the self-in-connection demonstrate places that female passionateprosperity rises up out of the capacity to keep up commonly strong connectionsin which there is real, proportional articulation of feelings and necessities(Carr, Gilroy, and Sherman, 1996). That being stated, what occurs for youthfulfemales who live in a culture that undermines the significance of keeping upmental connectedness to others as a way to build up a feeling of self, yet inthe meantime forces social weights to be the guardian of others? Thus lies theformative conundrum confronting young ladies as they enter pre-adulthood.Gilligan et al. (1991) suggested that repudiating the self, or what might aswell be called losing one’s voice, seeing someone is maybe an endeavor todetermine this formative emergency. Importance, by quieting one’s feelings andconsiderations seeing someone young ladies are dodging struggle to look afterassociation, however in the meantime this concealment likewise serves to shieldthe feeling of self from others’ feedback. In principle, the self and therelationship are saved.
Then again, a false social self develops which blocksgenuine closeness inside connections, denying youthful females the sharedcredibility required for self-development and enthusiastic prosperity.Expanding the investigation of ladies’ improvement to that of more youthfulfemales, Brown and Gilligan (1992) difficultly met more than 100 young ladiesfor a long time amid the late 1980s to catch their encounters on the voyagefrom adolescence to womanhood. This 29 broad work brought about meetingtranscripts loaded down with tales of disarray about and quieting of one’s feelingsand observations once achieving immaturity. Young ladies who had once talked soaptly and transparently to others about their internal encounters started tosmother and uncertainty parts of themselves even with conceivable relationshipchange. These analysts inferred that as females progress toward becomingdrenched in the social development of reality (i.e., social weights for femalesto stifle negative feelings) they start to show a façade of consistence anddoubt their own particular experience of the world to educate their feelings,considerations, and activities.
Besides, this formative procedure, whichGilligan alluded to as repudiation of the self, was guessed to add tomisconduct, high schooler pregnancy, and dietary problems in females.To mention theSelf-Silencing Theory with reference to the research article of Self-silencingas a mediator and moderator of adult attachment and disordered eating attitudesby Shannon Kellim Young was of the reason that Self Silencing gives poorcorrelation with all the variables due to many concerns. The present studyexpands this line of research by exploring possible mediators and moderators ofthis association cited in extant researchs. Specifically, this study examinedwhether self-silencing serves as a mediator and moderator between Gratitude andrelationship of working and non-working women. The most significant findingswere self-silencing partially mediated the relation between gratitude andrelationships of working and non-working women. Whereas, self-silencing is wayless in working women as compared to non-working women.
There could bemany possible reason of this weak correlation some of the important oneaccording to the eastern culture of Pakistan are here follows:1. Womenof the Pakistani culture are used to praise and their spouse as assistant toGod on earth. Which directly project to their tendency of not raising theirvoices against any issue involving violence and other matters.
2. Chancesof social desirability in women are higher then men. Thus, we can possiblyassume that women didn’t likely to reveal their internal problems by showinghigh scores on self-silencing. (James R. Hebert et. Al 1997)3.
Womenof working Class are more prone to raise their voices which ultimately predictslow level of gratitude in them. (Table 4)4. AttachmentStyle with their Spouse can also be the hidden factor behind low correlation inthe results. For example, there is a possibility that as most of the marriedcouples in this culture are most likely to be in relationship pf arrangemarriage which insist them to remain quiet for their own better good.
Coming to theissue of Social Desireability it is possibly assumed that, women in thePakistani culture are less likely to show openness to their experiences when itis about their marital life either it is about working class or non-workingclass. (see Table 2) Under these circumstances,we can assume that women from any sort of occupation either house wives orworking women, they tend to show self silencing even when it is about beingopen to how they feel to remain silent. Or even if it has no effect on theirmarital life i.e no utterance on Gratitude and no positive effect onrelationships.
Moreover, thereare two possible interpretations for the present results. First, women withhigh attachment anxiety tend to have a negative internal working model of self(Pietromonaco & Barrett, 2000). They not only devalue their own needs andemotions but also pay more attention to meet external standards in order toplease others and maintain relationship and self-worth. Because theirself-worth is built on external standards and sources of validation theirvulnerability to unrealistic societal standards of body size and beauty isincreased, which may then contribute to disordered eating attitudes. Likewise,women with high attachment avoidance tend to hold a negative working model ofothers (Pietromonaco & Barrett). Thus, they might have limited capacitiesfor trusting others and anticipate others will disappoint them. As such, they maybe less likely to engage in emotional self-disclosure to others and maydefensively deny relational needs, presenting a façade of independence throughexcessive self-reliance. However, these defensive strategies may engender theadded risks of disordered eating (e.
g., emotion-based eating and/or rigidcontrol of food consumption) to suppress their feelings.That is,previous literature has suggested that those with attachment anxiety andattachment avoidance may engage in behaviours to avoid hurt or rejection inrelationships by relationship preoccupation and relationship distance,respectively. However, the underlying motivations may differ depending on thedegree of avoidance and anxiety experienced (Fraley & Shaver, 2000).
Specifically, those with high attachment anxiety are more likely to sustainclose emotional connections with others by placing others needs over their ownneeds but silencing their frustration and anger. However, those with highattachment avoidance are more likely to diminish true intimacy and dependenceon others by restricting their expression of needs or emotions to preventinterpersonal hurt. Empirically, the results of this study are consistent withpast research suggesting that those with attachment anxiety are likely todemonstrate self-silencing within relationships (Remen et al., 2002).It is possiblethat specific components of self-silencing are differentially associated withcertain categories of relationships which might not be discussed or assumedbefore.For example,scores on Gratitude may be weakly positively associated with the scores on theSS Scale Divided Self-Subscale subscale as this subscale measures the tendencyto conceal one’s true self in relationships.
Moreover, consideringself-silencing serves as a mediator between gratitude and occupation, futureresearch designed to assess the treatment efficacy of interventions helpingwomen develop alternative ways to express their feelings and needs inrelationships is strongly supported.In conclusion,the present study empirically examined self-silencing as a predictor of Gratitudeand in women of working and non-working class. The results suggest thatself-silencing not act as a very good predictor of gratitude but this idea canbe merged as there is a strong impact of Social desirability and culturaldifferences in Pakistan. These results contribute to the limited empirical dataon the implications of the Self Silencing theory to adult female populationsdemonstrating low level of gratitude due to self silencing in both the cases whetherit is working or non-working class. Finally, this study suggests that mentalhealth professionals may be able to help women with level of confidence toavoid self-silencing when it has no impact on gratitude and avoidance by validating and encouragingemotional expression within relationships as a means to decrease their levelsof guilt for being silent or not living a happy life.