section{Thought-based put the users in an empty cage or

section{Thought-based Animated Character: System Integration}Anton etal cite{anton2007} stated that researchers are using advanced technologies to build Brain-Computer-Interfaces that allow patients who have severe motor disabilities to communicate and control devices only with their thoughts. Having access to rich information about the state of the patient (user) opens up at least three distinct areas of research:egin{itemize}    item extbf{Controlling computers with thought alone:} Direct control by thought, that is, inducing thoughts to manipulate brain activity that can be mapped onto game interaction commands (e.g., move cursor, click buttons, control devices).    item extbf{Evaluating interfaces and systems:} Determining the cognitive tasks in which the user is involved in order to evaluate game interfaces or game environments.    item extbf{Building adaptive user interfaces:} Using cognitive or affective state of the user to dynamically adapt the interface to the user (e.g., detect frustration or engagement and provide tailored feedback).end{itemize}User-controlled brain activity has been used in games, that involve:egin{itemize}    item Moving a cursor on the screen    item Guiding the movements of an avatar in the virtual environment by imagining these movements.end{itemize} extbf{Many challenges are unique to BCI research.} For example: egin{itemize}    item The presence of artifacts that were previously claimed to be noise. We cannot control a very tight environment in most of the BCI applications: you cannot put the users in an empty cage or tie them down so they don’t move.     item The fusion of information coming from traditional inputs with those coming from brain waves. (eg. speech, gesture, etc. )end{itemize}BCI research usually focus on providing disabled users with more functionality. Allison etal cite{Allison2007} suggested that BCI applications could be used not only for disabled users but for healthy ones as well. They said that healthy users could use BCI applications to control games or go through virtual environments. Some BCI applications allow users to manipulate an aircraft simulator. Another BCI allowed user to move a map in two-dimensions.  Figure
ef{fig:fig16} shows a picture of a virtual street that is populated with fifteen avatars. The patient is in his wheelchair. The task of the patient here was to reach the end of the street (that is outlined with a dashed line). The avatars were standing in two rows and each of them had his invisible communication sphere (draw as dotted line here). The patient had to stop within this sphere, not too close and not too far from the avatar. egin{figure}centering  includegraphicswidth=0.7 extwidth{figures/Figure16.jpg}  caption{Patient controls a wheelchair in virtual reality}   label{fig:fig16}end{figure}Figure
ef{fig:Fig17} shows the “Jump and Run” game. The task for the user here was to leapfrog short and long obstacles.egin{figure}centering  includegraphicswidth=0.7 extwidth{figures/Figure17.jpg}  caption{Jump and run game}   label{fig:Fig17}end{figure}3 different motor imagery related brain patterns (left hand, right hand, foot or tongue)The task of the game was to navigate through a virtual environment and collect scattered coins within a limited time.In figure
ef{fig:Fig18} A-E. First person view of the freeSpace VE presented to the subjects on a standard computer screen E. A tree, some hedges and a coin (n B. ) are visible. The big arrow represents the BCI classification result and navigation command (A. turn left, B. move forward, C. turn right, D. non-control). On the upper left side the scoreboard and on the right side the elapsed time was presented. For an easier navigation on the right side a rotating map of the freeSpace was shown. F. Stereoscopic visualization of the VE on a projection wall.egin{figure}centering  includegraphicswidth= extwidth{figures/Figure18.jpg}  caption{Game to navigate through a virtual environment and collect scattered coins within a limited time.}   label{fig:Fig18}end{figure}section{Summary}