Rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis ) belongs to the family Labiatae (Lamiaceae) and is a native of southern Europe. The essential oil of rosemary is presently used in flavor preparations, perfumery, and medicine. Rosemary extract has been shown to have antioxidant, antimicrobial, and medicinal properties (Cuvelier et al, 1994; Aruoma et al, 1992; Peake et al., 1991). It contains a large number of compounds including carnosic acid, camosol, and rosmarinic acid, which are responsible for antioxidant activity (Aeschbach et al, 1990; Frankel et al, 1996).
Rosmarinus Officinalis (or the common name is rosemary) is a woody, perenial herb. Rosemary is an aromatic evergreen shrub with leaves similar to needles but with a flat surface. The leaves are used as a flavoring in foods such as stuffings and roast lamb, pork, chicken and turkey. It can withstand droughts, surviving a severe lack of water for lengthy periods. Forms range from upright to trailing; the upright forms can reach 1.5 m tall, rarely 2 m.The leaves are evergreen, 2–4 cm long and 2–5 mm broad, green above, and white below, with dense, short, woolly hair. The plant flowers in spring and summer in temperate climates, but the plants can be in constant bloom in warm climates; flowers are white, pink, purple or deep blue.
Memory boots is one of health benefit of Rosemary. The rosemary oils contain borneol, bomyl acetate, camphene, cineol, pinene and camphor. They are used for problems involved in central nervous system, cardio vascular system, genito urinary conditions (Subarda Sandhya, 2013 ). A recent study also show that it can improve memorizing and concentrating abilities (Srithi Srinath in 2014).
The aroma of rosemary alone has been linked to improving mood, clearing the mind, and relieving stress in those with chronic anxiety or stress hormone imbalances. The effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of the stems and leaves of this plant was investigated in two behavioral models, the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) in mice show that the antidepressant action of the extract of R. officinalis is mediated and can be further study to find the cure for depression (Daniele G. Machado,2009).
Other than that, rosemary can improve our immune system. The active components in rosemary are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic in nature. This represents a three-pronged attack against many different diseases and pathogens that could threaten the immune system or damage the integrity of the body. Antioxidant compounds form a secondary line of defense behind the body’s own immune system, and rosemary contains a significant amount of those powerful compounds, including rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid (Al-Sereiti,1999), betulic acid(Daniele G. Machado,2013), and carnosol (Erol Ayranci, 2008, Carol R. L. Wellwood, 2004).
Current method s’ review
A method for rapid multiplication of Rosmarinus officinalis L. var. genu ina forma erectus was developed affording production of about 5,000 plants from one nodal segment in one year. Plants could be established in culture only with nodal stem segments taken from fieldgrown plants. Ca. 14 shoot buds differentiated per shoot apex, excised from aseptically established plants, in medium with 0.2 mg. I-I BAP within 30 days. Isolated shoots rooted 80 % in the presence of 0.25 mg. I-I IP A in 7 days. The in vitro-raised plants grew normally in soil under glasshouse conditions. (h. c. chaturvedi, 1983)
Somatic embryogenesis was obtained from young leaf explants of rosemary with 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyaceti acid (2, 4- D) in different concentrations (0.45, 2.25, 4.52, 6.75, 9.04 ?M) in combination with Benzyladenine (BA) using modified woody plant medium (WPM). The best frequencies of induction were obtained in a medium supplemented with 2.25 ?M 2, 4-D and 0.45 ?M BA, in which 100% of the calli produced somatic embryos. Subculture of primary somatic embryos on modified WPM without hormones gave rise to clusters with secondary somatic embryos and embryogenic calli. These clusters were sub-cultured every 4 weeks, and an average of 10% of the secondary somatic embryos developed into plantlets in each subculture. The same culture on WPM containing Abscisic acid (ABA) in different concentrations (3.48, 7.67, 11.35 ?M) also yielded de novo secondary embryos and whitish embryogenic calli. (nourin aman and humera afrasiab, 2014).
For this project
I will use MS (Murashige and Skoog,1962) as the main medium for culturing rosmarinus officinalis because following Simona Ana GABOR-POTOR, Liviu POP, 2007 showed that the best medium for growing Rosmarinus officinalis is Basal MS medium.
Auxins groups have the functions to Stimulate the stem elongation ( for low concentration only), root growth, cell differentiation. Cytokinin have the similar functions like affecting root growth and differentiation, stimukate cell division and growth, stimulate germination, delay senescence. So for the characteristics of shoot growh and root growth of auxin and cytokinin, I choose them for the experiment of induction of shoot adventitous of rosemary. For more specific, auxin include 2,4-D, IAA, NAA, and cytokinin include 6-BA, zeatin, TDZ. My main concern is to induct the growth of shoot adventitous but as scientist know, cytokinin also have the ability to affect the shoot growth. Therefore, I also use 3 of plant hormones from cytokinin family which is quite commonly used.
+ 2,4-D : based on research of Nourin Aman And Humera Afrasiab, 2014 I see that they use the concentration of 2,4-D around 0.6 to 0.7 but due to the shortage of plant hormones in our workplace, I only use the concentration of 0.1 and 0.5 to check for the different between concentrations.
+ TDZ : based on J.L. Caruso et al. 2000 show that the shoot adventitous can be grown on the medium of TDZ or Zeatin alone with concentration of 1 or 2 mg/l.
+IAA, NAA : based on Yumei Dong et al.,2012 and H. C. Chaturvedi, Pratibha Misra,1984 show that when using the concentration of NAA around 0.1 to 0.2 even to 0.5mg/l so I try to increase the concentration to check whether it has higher effect. IAA concentration around 0.1 to 0.2 mg/l also show in the article to have effect in shoot adventitous of rosmarinus plant spieces.
+ For the combination concentration of 6-BA, it was showed in Yumei Dong, Renxiang Wang et al.,2012 that when combine these concentrations ( 0.5, 1,1.5 mg/L) it may have enhanced the growth rate the best when combine. And I also want to test as in the article mentioned about using lower concentration so I want to test it to see if it make much different.