REVIEW shelter and roads. Research interest in construction of

REVIEW OFRELATED LITERATUREIntroduction            Constructionis an activity that requires high-risk. It must be managed from procurement,the start of the project, from the design process until the end of theconstruction stage  NiallO & Donovan (n.d.).            Construction is very important economically. Forinstance, Durdyev& Ismail (2012) asserted that it is one of the mostdynamic and responsive sectors in the industry.

It stimulates great amount ofeconomic growth and has a highly visible output which makes its sectorpowerful. It also plays a vital role in the growth and development of theeconomy and is very important in terms of satisfying basic physical and socialneeds like shelter Moavenzadeh& Rossow (1976). Hence, construction does not onlyboost up the economy but it also provides shelter and roads. Research interest in construction of roads are already numerous as the construction industry is continuouslyfinding ways to better the quality of their constructions and avoid delay. Thusthis literature review attempts to explore studies regarding the factors thataffect the delays in the construction project duration.               Thisliterature review begins with an exploration ofthe different concepts related to the delay in construction. According to Kikwasi(2013), delays are among the problemsfaced when performing construction projects and are sources of probable hazardswherein current studies are looking for ways to manage. Wherein the projectcompletion is beyond the agreed date on the contract Divya.

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R& S.Ramya (2015). A discussion on the concepts ofconstruction delay and its definition will be presented.

ConstructionDelays            Constructionsencounter delays throughout the project duration. According to Haseeb,Xinhai-Lu, Bibi, Maloof-ud-Dyian, & Rabbani (2011) construction delays is a fact thatmostly occurs in the construction industry. They further added that delays arealways expensive to all concerned parties in the project.

It is generallyregarded as the most common problem in constructions, complex and risky Sambasivan& Soon (2007). It also prompts negative effectssuch as the increase of project cost, loss of productivity and contacttermination Owolabiet al. (2014). In addition, Anastasopoulos,Labi, Bhargava, & Mannering (2012) asserted that delays could extendthe duration of the project and contributes to the dissatisfaction of road usersand could also increase the risk of litigation. Thus causes financial andcoordination problems throughout the project duration Alaghbari,Razali A. Kadir, Salim, & Ernawati (2007)Effects ofConstruction DelaysFrequent effects of construction delaysin most projects according to Aibinu& Jagboro (2002) are time and cost overruns.

However, Pourrostam& Ismail (2012) added disputes, total abandonment,arbitration, and litigation. Furthermore, Kikwasi(2013) added negative social impact andidling resources as its main effects. Causes ofConstruction DelaysAccording to Mohammed& Isah (2012), the causes of delay in constructionprojects are improper planning, lack of communication, design errors, and shortage of supply. Meanwhile, Frimpong,Oluwoye, & Crawford (2003) asserted that monthly paymentdifficulties from the agencies, poor contractor management, materialprocurement, poor technical performance and escalation of the prices ofmaterials are the causes of delays in construction. However, according to Manavazhi& Adhikari (2002), the cause of delays in constructionare the organization’s  weakness,defaults of the supplier, governmental regulations and the delay intransportation.         Moreover,according to Arantes,Da Silva, & Ferreira (2016) slow decision-making, change inorders, unrealistic timescales, and poor contract specifications, financialconstraints, and type of bidding and contract award process delay the construction project.Types of Delays            According to Trauner(2009) in Muhammed (2015), delays can be classified in fourdifferent major categories namely Critical or Non-Critical,Excusable or Non Excusable, Compensable or Noncompensable,and Concurrent or Non-Concurrent. For thefirst category, Critical Delay is when the contractor could not finish the constructionon the scheduled completion date agreed on the contract while Non-Critical Delays are the delays that do nothave an impact on the completion date ofthe project.

The second category is Excusable or Non Excusable Delay. ExcusableDelays is caused by an unanticipated event which is beyond the control of the contractor and thesubcontractors meanwhile Non Excusable Delays are events that can beanticipated by the contractor and are under his/her control. For the thirdcategory, Compensable Delays is when a contractor is given a time extension of theproject and an additional compensation while Non-CompensableDelay is when the contractor is not given a time extension. Lastly, the fourthcategory is Concurrent or Non-ConcurrentDelays. Concurrent Delay happens when two or more delays happen at the sametime but is felt or affects the whole duration of the project while Non-Concurrent Delays is its complete opposite.   ConclusionConstruction delay is referred assomething happening later than the scheduled, anticipated, and stated in theagreed contract by all the parties Pickavance(2005) in Kikwasi (2013).  This literature review has discovered thatconstruction delay is prevalent all over the world.

Many studies have been doneto look for the causes and the effects of delay and many have been published. However, there wereno studies found that was done in Ormoc City.