REVIEW shelter and roads. Research interest in construction of

REVIEW OF
RELATED LITERATURE

Introduction

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            Construction
is an activity that requires high-risk. It must be managed from procurement,
the start of the project, from the design process until the end of the
construction stage  Niall
O & Donovan (n.d.).

            Construction is very important economically. For
instance, Durdyev
& Ismail (2012) asserted that it is one of the most
dynamic and responsive sectors in the industry. It stimulates great amount of
economic growth and has a highly visible output which makes its sector
powerful. It also plays a vital role in the growth and development of the
economy and is very important in terms of satisfying basic physical and social
needs like shelter Moavenzadeh
& Rossow (1976). Hence, construction does not only
boost up the economy but it also provides shelter and roads.

Research interest in construction of roads are already numerous as the construction industry is continuously
finding ways to better the quality of their constructions and avoid delay. Thus
this literature review attempts to explore studies regarding the factors that
affect the delays in the construction project duration.   

            This
literature review begins with an exploration of
the different concepts related to the delay in construction. According to Kikwasi
(2013), delays are among the problems
faced when performing construction projects and are sources of probable hazards
wherein current studies are looking for ways to manage. Wherein the project
completion is beyond the agreed date on the contract Divya.R
& S.Ramya (2015). A discussion on the concepts of
construction delay and its definition will be presented.

Construction
Delays

            Constructions
encounter delays throughout the project duration. According to Haseeb,
Xinhai-Lu, Bibi, Maloof-ud-Dyian, & Rabbani (2011) construction delays is a fact that
mostly occurs in the construction industry. They further added that delays are
always expensive to all concerned parties in the project. It is generally
regarded as the most common problem in constructions, complex and risky Sambasivan
& Soon (2007). It also prompts negative effects
such as the increase of project cost, loss of productivity and contact
termination Owolabi
et al. (2014). In addition, Anastasopoulos,
Labi, Bhargava, & Mannering (2012) asserted that delays could extend
the duration of the project and contributes to the dissatisfaction of road users
and could also increase the risk of litigation. Thus causes financial and
coordination problems throughout the project duration Alaghbari,
Razali A. Kadir, Salim, & Ernawati (2007)

Effects of
Construction Delays

Frequent effects of construction delays
in most projects according to Aibinu
& Jagboro (2002) are time and cost overruns. However, Pourrostam
& Ismail (2012) added disputes, total abandonment,
arbitration, and litigation. Furthermore, Kikwasi
(2013) added negative social impact and
idling resources as its main effects.

Causes of
Construction Delays

According to Mohammed
& Isah (2012), the causes of delay in construction
projects are improper planning, lack of communication, design errors, and shortage of supply. Meanwhile, Frimpong,
Oluwoye, & Crawford (2003) asserted that monthly payment
difficulties from the agencies, poor contractor management, material
procurement, poor technical performance and escalation of the prices of
materials are the causes of delays in construction. However, according to Manavazhi
& Adhikari (2002), the cause of delays in construction
are the organization’s  weakness,
defaults of the supplier, governmental regulations and the delay in
transportation.         Moreover,
according to Arantes,
Da Silva, & Ferreira (2016) slow decision-making, change in
orders, unrealistic timescales, and poor contract specifications, financial
constraints, and type of bidding and contract award process delay the construction project.

Types of Delays

            According to Trauner
(2009) in Muhammed (2015), delays can be classified in four
different major categories namely Critical or Non-Critical,
Excusable or Non Excusable, Compensable or Noncompensable,
and Concurrent or Non-Concurrent. For the
first category, Critical Delay is when the contractor could not finish the construction
on the scheduled completion date agreed on the contract while Non-Critical Delays are the delays that do not
have an impact on the completion date of
the project. The second category is Excusable or Non Excusable Delay. Excusable
Delays is caused by an unanticipated event which is beyond the control of the contractor and the
subcontractors meanwhile Non Excusable Delays are events that can be
anticipated by the contractor and are under his/her control. For the third
category, Compensable Delays is when a contractor is given a time extension of the
project and an additional compensation while Non-Compensable
Delay is when the contractor is not given a time extension. Lastly, the fourth
category is Concurrent or Non-Concurrent
Delays. Concurrent Delay happens when two or more delays happen at the same
time but is felt or affects the whole duration of the project while Non-Concurrent Delays is its complete opposite.
   

Conclusion

Construction delay is referred as
something happening later than the scheduled, anticipated, and stated in the
agreed contract by all the parties Pickavance
(2005) in Kikwasi (2013).  This literature review has discovered that
construction delay is prevalent all over the world. Many studies have been done
to look for the causes and the effects of delay and many have been published. However, there were
no studies found that was done in Ormoc City.