Review of The Related Literature
In this chapter, a
detailed review of accessible literature on the barriers to female
participation in higher education has been presented. This helped researcher to
draw theoretical basis for the present study.
is generally viewed as the intellectual and moral training of individuals
through which their potentialities are developed, the traits of the Creator are
inculcated in them and the culture of the people is transmitted to the coming
generations. Through educational process, a nation develops its
self-consciousness by development of its individuals who create it. Education
is a social institution which trains an individual mentally, physically,
ideologically and morally. So, the individual can have complete awareness of one’s
mission and purpose of life.
(2004) Described that
the meaning of Education is “to know”.
Human beings have been awarded knowledge to live in the world. Firstly,
knowledge enables man to achieve his or her goals of life e.g. beliefs, ethics
and right and duties. This is known as religious knowledge and Allah Almighty
arranged it through prophets to convey this knowledge to human beings. Besides,
there are some other kinds of worldly knowledge e.g. mathematics, Physics,
Chemistry, Biology, Philosophy and Economic.
(2010) Defined that education is a social process by which balanced
development of an individual can take place. Education grooms the personality
as a carpenter mold a piece of wood into beautiful shape. The process of
education is not limited to man or woman but the education of both has its own significance.
Many aspects about the education of women are arguable. Khan, (2007) Explained that education is the backbone of the infrastructure
of any country. It is the most powerful instrument of change.
& Kanta, (2006) Illustrated that education remains one of the essential elements
for the maintainable socioeconomic development of a society and a basic
instrument for human resources development as it enables economic through the
broader application of skills, Knowledge and creative power of a society,
decrease of poverty or difference, and try to overcome gender differences
between male and female.
Yaqoob, (2010) Narrated that education was an important problem of our national
life. Islam is the only religion, which in Islamic history whose courtesy, God fairness,
and sacrifice was an example for us. In the sub-continent people had awareness
about female education because they know that an educated woman was a good
protector of the culture of a nation ensures the security for the development
of a new generation.
to Higher Education Commission (HEC) higher education is recognized as a
capital investment and important for social and economic development. Higher
education means all courses, curricula, texts institutes and faculty involved
in teaching students beyond the intermediate level. Investment on higher
education can be justified on grounds of social and economic impact. The
existing system of higher education comprises of number of interlocking
institutions. These include the federal and provincial ministries of education
and their attached departments, offices of the chancellor of public
universities, HEC and various universities and colleges. University management
board comprises of number of vc, the registrar and deans as executive body.
President hold powerful position, he appoints vice-chancellor, member of
syndicate and deans. Syndicate is the supreme governing and legislative body of
the university. The chancellor is the chairman of syndicate. VC is the chief
academic and administrative officer of the university. Registrar enforce
academic and administrative policies as well as prepare institutional reports.
Chaudhry, (2007) opined that It believes that major cause of the lagging
behind in general in economic and social progress in most of the developing
country including Pakistan is absence of a higher percentage of educated and
technically qualified women”. Population of female is a huge part of the
country. We cannot develop our country if we cannot educate this large part of
our population. The educational backwardness of Pakistani people is most
noticeable in respect of women education. In Pakistan people did not give
importance about female education. In fact, female consider as a burden on
their father and brothers that’s why they did not educate their daughters or
Afzal & Roshi, (2013) expressed educated females are more aware of their rights. If a
greatest participation of educated female’s in the economy and political
process would lead to a better world today as well as future generations. Faridi
& Malik, (2009) Suggested that women education in Pakistanis status and
standard particularly is at the lowest level. Females are deprived because of
multifarious socio-cultural and economic reasons and gender prejudices unable to
play active role in the development of society.
FEMALE HIGHER EDUCATION
Parveen, (2008) stated that educated female always play a significant and
essential role in all fields of life. The development of female higher
education practices has led to worldwide discussion of how to convey an equal
education opportunity for all without any sort of discrimination. The female
higher education is left behind although it is most effective and smart
investment for economic growth of and development of any country around the
globe. There is need of policy formulation focused on women empowerment in
higher education for career development, employment, decision-making and
providing legal, political, economic and social rights to women. “Female higher
education plays a very significant and crucial role in the development of a
nation, especially in the economic development of a country. But female
education in rural areas of Pakistan, its status and standard is mainly at the
lowest level. Thousands of girls’ otherwise intelligent and capable to get
higher education are deprived because of diverse socio-cultural, economic
reasons and gender prejudices. Due to this reason, they are unable to play an
active role in the development of society”.
Terry and Thomas, (1997) described that are of the view that equal treatment of genders
(female/male) of our society who are entitled to participate in and enjoy the
benefits of higher educational opportunities. All students and adults have the
equal opportunity to participate fully and to experience success and human
dignity while developing skills, knowledge and attitudes necessary to
contribute meaningfully to society.
and Patricia, (1991) Defined that the original WID (Women in Development) approach
recognized that through higher education women’s active role in the development
process as reproductive, productive and community workers, and emphasis the
fulfillment of their strategic needs through direct state intervention. Due to
its political nature, this approach was soon replaced by and anti-property
approach, focused on practical needs surrounding women’s productive role. The
equality and empowerment approaches have been labeled as GAD (Gender and
Development) approaches because of their emphasis on strategic needs. The term
empowerment has come to mean many different things to different actors in the
FEMALE HIGHER EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN
World Bank Report, (2011) Explained
that disparity in higher education exists
in rural areas of Pakistan which on many grounds affects gender development.
For females, there is no equal opportunity in higher education in the rural
areas of Pakistan. Females are facing difficulties in getting higher education
cause of gender discrimination. Gender equality in higher education can help in
reducing the economic problems and can plane the path of gender development. Pakistan
has paid a little attention in gender equality in higher education.
higher education has been an orphan child in our society due to the double
standards. Still only 2% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is allocated for the
welfare of female higher education in rural areas which is quite insufficient
to meet the demands of higher education. No economic progress is possible
without female higher education as it requires trained human resources. We cannot
progress economically, socially and spiritually, until and unless we involve
females. Gender equality is a key to all kind of progress. No country has
progressed without involving women in education. The secret of many countries’
development in term of education imbedded is imbedded to female education. Both
countries’ educational policy focus on gender equality.
to bring gender equality, it is essential to provide equal opportunities to
both; men and women in education and higher education and to make female
equally empowered as men in decision making in every mode of life. It is very
essential to educate women in male dominated society such as Pakistan because
“educating girls delivers a high return than other investment in the developing
(2001) narrated that Pakistan is a signatory of the UN Education for All (EFA)
Framework for Action (2000) Document, which places considerable emphasis on
women’s education, particularly the elimination of gender disparities in
primary, secondary and higher education, but the target of achieving Education
for All in Pakistan is still far from satisfactory. The state of education,
especially female education, is still abysmal. The female literacy rate clearly
shows that investment in human development tends toward favoring men over
(2007) opined that Women have limited opportunities to acquire higher education
and attain professional and technical degrees. Education is equally important
for both men and women. But, unfortunately in some countries, people neglect
the society. Despite the beneficial acceptance of the women education at the
universal level, more than 180 million out of the 300 million illiterate
children are girls.
FEMALE EDUCATION IGNORANCE