Research led to brain injuries, ADHD, epilepsy, and autism.

Research Paper on ADHDAlice CookLiberty UniversityAuthor NoteAlice Cook, Student of Social Work, Liberty University Lynchburg, VirginiaAbstractADHD (attention deficit hyperactive disorder) is a neurodevelopmental mental disorder that can be found prevalent in both children and adults alike. This disorder affects their interaction with others, due to the hyperactivity and being inappropriate in speech and gestures. Day to day activities for these patients are not as normal, because of the developmental delays.  Their actions may not be age appropriate. Learning is also a great challenge when this disorder brings about issues of both attention span, being impulsive, and hyperactivity for parents and teachers. This also causes issues with their peers socially, with having low self-esteem and coping skills because of their issues.  Many factors have been studied to try to find a direct reason for this disorder, such as environmental, economic, and heredity but the research is still being tested. There are treatments for this disease with medications and counseling, but there is not a cure.Keywords:  Keywords:  ADHD, Neurodevelopmental, hyperactivity, impulsive, attention span, coping skills,Research Paper on ADHDADHD is a disorder that affects a lot of people on a daily basis, and it causes a lot of underdeveloped social skills and depression to the person who has it.  The treatment of this disease consists of different medications such as Adderall or Risperdone.  According to Boker, G. and Anderson, P. (2014), “Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological condition of childhood onset with the hallmarks of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Inattention includes excessive daydreaming, disorganization, and being easily distracted” (p. 336). According to Cortese, S. and Tessari, L. (2017), “has been reported that impairing symptoms of ADHD persist into adulthood in up to 65% of childhood-onset cases 2, with a prevalence of ADHD in adults estimated at ?2.5% “(p. 1).Causes and symptomsDietary factors while pregnant and the sociological economic factors have a common factor in a child having ADHD. Hyperemesis is a common form of morning sickness, that us normal in our family.  This has caused a lot of dietary issues with the pregnancies in our family, that has led to brain injuries, ADHD, epilepsy, and autism. The build of ADHD is similar to other neurological disorders, such as autism, and schizophrenia (Thapar, A. and Cooper, M. ,2016, p. 3). Neurological disorders such as epilepsy can also be a factor in having ADHD. In some cases, if there is autism, there is also ADHD or a neurological disorder also. Families that have a history of mental issues or certain disorders are more likely to produce a child that has ADHD.  The issues that come along with neurodevelopmental disorders are hard to detect as at an earlier age, but their problems are still very prevalent to everyone that something isn’t right (Thapar, A. and Cooper, M., 2016, p. 2). My cousin has a child that is ten years old, neither side have no known genetic factors of ADHD to compare, and it has torn their life apart with the onset of this new illness in their life. He runs in the road, hits, spits, has uncontrollable gestures, and bites consistently,  he will not be still, and he can no longer return to school. They have had to take turns keeping them, since they have to work different shifts. No one is suitable to keep him in their mind. He can no longer function as being alone on a daily basis. I can say that my son’s ADHD came from my father’s side of the family, based on the fact that he had schizophrenia. This was unknown to me at the time, but after so many issues      This means that the axon sends waves with the neurotransmitters to receive messages from place to place. If even one axon is off upon firing, the brain does not work right. This also means that the brain is like a motor machine that needs to be kept in good condition, in order to work properly.Treatments      Some of the treatment medications that he takes are Banzel and Depakote, for his seizures, but for his behavior he takes Risperdone for his ADHD.  is one of many antipsychotic  drugs. It has been linked to many issues for certain people. It is also one of few medications, that can be Adderall is another anticonvulsant medication given to ADHD patients.  used in certain cases of people who can’t find a better medicine to deal with their ADHD. He has to have Behavioral therapy, speech therapy, and regular counseling to share with their family. This helps the coping skills of the day to day issues of having a special needs person in your life. I did learn about the support groups and CHADD resource directory that helps with finding the best resources for people with ADHD.      The two types of drugs that deal with ADHD and other neurological illnesses are called antagonists, and agonists (Carlson, N, 2014, p. 83). These drugs are very important in finding the right medication for someone who has these issues, on a daily basis.  There are also hospitals that deal with behavior issues such as UMMC circle 3, and also Brentwood here in Mississippi. The thing that some people fail to realize, is that having a child or an adult to deal with that has ADHD is hard.       In the case of one of my cousins, He has both ADHD and seizures. There was no acknowledgement of either, until one was diagnosed. There was no scarring, lesions, or brain injury to cause the seizures in his brain. Somehow his brain seems healthy, but it has activity that cannot be stopped by medicine alone. The doctors wanted to do both the corpus callosum and the (VNS) vagus nerve stimulator. (Hinkley et al., 2013), “There is also a growing body of literature reporting that subtle structural changes in the corpus callosum may correlate with cognitive and behavioral deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, schizophrenia, and attention-deficit disorder” (para. 2).  It is seen as a mental illness if this is done. A mental illness is a condition that affects a person’s thinking, feeling, and mood. I believe that it would be more of a health problem both physically and mentally. “do not fear, for I am with you; Do not anxiously look about you, Surely I will uphold you with my righteous right hand” (Isaiah 41:10 king James Version).      After seeing the EEG (Electroencephalography) and brain scan, he only went through what is called a (VNS) surgery along with medications. There was also blood test done. To make sure that once again nothing different showed up as a problem.  What was found after his seizures was somewhat controlled was his ADHD. It is not known if his seizures were caused by his ADHD or his ADHD caused his seizures. (Aans.org, 2017) “The nerve passes through the neck as it travels between the chest and abdomen and the lower part of the brain (para. 1).  The sensory and motor functions are connected (Aans.orf,2017, para. 1, 2017). The side effects are hoarseness, pain, increased coughing, and nausea and vomiting to name a few. (Aans.org, 2017, para.  9). There also was stitches and scars left from the surgery. From a personal perspective, there was a lot more pain than was expected and at night there may be a little bit more side effects such as chills, crying, and fever. There was still two weeks left of staying up at night, and trying to find rest, even with the medication that was administered. CaregivingChild care is hard to find for a child with ADHD, but because an adult is considered to have met their learning threshold. For children, their situation could change for the better or worst,  due to the growing of their growing bodies and mind. If they are able to attend school it may be through a day treatment program at  center or in a inclusion class. These classes are tailored to suit the needs of kids with ADHD and other special needs. They have resources such as special lighting, toys and computer systems that don’t affect the sensitivity of their eyes. Behavioral planning as well as IEP planning are needed to access the needs of the child. The parents are also encouraged to do the same behavioral practices that are done in school. For example, giving rewards such as star stickers for doing good at home and bigger rewards for the week. This will be the same for bad behavior, if the child acts out. There will not be any rewards, but whatever technology or thing that is important to the child will be taken away until the behavior is changed. For adults, there is group homes, mental institutions, or if controlled they are able to remain at home under strict supervision. Constant watch for both children and adults have to sustained by a doctor and psychiatrist to watch their blood and what side effects that could arise.The parents or caregivers need help also. Achieving wedded bliss, though, may be challenging for parents of children with ADHD. (ADDitude, 2017), “In their study of more than 500 parents, Brian T. Wymbs, Ph.D., a clinical psychologist at the University of Pittsburgh, and his colleagues found that couples raising children with ADHD are about twice as likely to divorce by the time their children reach eight years of age as couples whose children don’t have the condition” (para.  2). Sometimes the blame game happens, and many parents cannot deal with everything going on a daily basis (ADDitude, 2017, para.  5). My cousin and his wife did separate for a while, because of the added stress of a special needs child. Respite care is one of the many avenues that help with the care of kids with ADHD.  Respite care consists of Certified nursing assistants or nurses that watch children while the parents get some time to do other things such as resting or going to the store. They still cannot go anywhere for days or weeks at a time. This also causes stress. It can also make getting together for a date night harder, and going out separately easier. If the child has just a behavioral problem it is easier to find care verses having ADHD and another neurological disorder, and it has to be approved based on the child’s IQ. As in the story of Phineas gage, there was a clear cut answer to his issue of having a steel rod that was jarred into his head by an explosion, He never was the same again. He never was able to go back a be the same foreman that he was before. He was able to maintain a job later on, but was never his full self again.  He died at an early age, and was not as happy as he could have been, because of his brain injury. ADHD has been around for quite a while now, but is still sort of unknown to all of the reasons this illness may or may not happen.ConclusionIn closing, no one can really give a definitive answer about when or how it directly happens. The one thing about ADHD, is that there is no manual on how to deal with a child with ADHD. It is very important to try to understand this disease since there is still not a cure for it. It is not to take away from the more serious disease, such as cancer and HIV.  Some people still are saying that ADHD is normal, and it is a way to give doctors something else to do. Speculation has been around for years about this issue. There still needs to be more studies done in order to fully grasp this disease. There are support groups and people that may help, but sometimes the only solace is in the peace of watching your own child. It just does happen at some point in someone’s life. “Be anxious for nothing, but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known to God. And the peace of God, which surpasses all comprehension, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus” (Philippians 4:6 King James Version).ReferencesAans.org. (2017). AANS | Vagus Nerve Stimulation. online Available at: http://www.aans.org/Patients/Neurosurgical-Conditions-and-Treatments/Vagus-Nerve-Stimulation Accessed 18 Dec. 2017.Bokor, G. and Anderson, P. (2014). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 27(4), pp.336-349.Cortese, S. and Tessari, L. (2017). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obesity: Update 2016. Current Psychiatry Reports, 19(1).Tarver, J., Daley, D. and Sayal, K. (2014). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an updated review of the essential facts. Child: Care, Health and Development, 40(6), pp.762-774. Thapar, A. and Cooper, M. (2016). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The Lancet, 387(10024), pp.1240-1250.Sarver, D., Rapport, M., Kofler, M., Raiker, J. and Friedman, L. (2015). Hyperactivity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Impairing Deficit or Compensatory Behavior?. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(7), pp.1219-1232.Hinkley, L., Marco, E., Findlay, A., Honma, S., Jeremy, R., Strominger, Z., Bukshpun, P., Wakahiro, M., Brown, W., Paul, L., Barkovich, A., Mukherjee, P., Nagarajan, S. and Sherr, E. (2013). The Role of Corpus Callosum Development in Functional Connectivity and Cognitive Processing. Carlson, N. (2014). FOUNDATIONS OF BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE. 9th ed.