Rashed AlshamsiJarad FennelENC110212/3/2017Self-driving CarsIn the recent past, an in-depth research has been on-going regarding self-driving cars as a result of the levels of fatalities emanating from road accidents. For instance, in the US, about 33, 000 road users including commuters, pedestrians, and drivers have in one way or another succumbed to deaths and injuries emanating from road accidents. Conversely, based on statistical data from the Center for Disease Control (CDC), the skyrocketing numbers of distracted drivers on the roads because of the global economic meltdown has rendered drivers unfocused and careless hence causing accidents. However, laws and traffic regulations have been published as sources of punishment for erring drivers, but most of them do not respect and adhere to the traffic law and regulations resulting in continuous road accidents. Consequently, the advancement in technology by tech companies and automobile manufacturers could avert the menace orchestrated by accidents through the manufacture of smart vehicles that contain warning systems to caution drivers in the event an occurrence of an accident is imminent. Hence, this would make roads safer for everyone. Nevertheless, amidst the use of far-fetched technological methods to curb fatalities from road carnage, little has been left to be desired. The way forward according to various researchers’ standpoints that are backed up by the study is the adoption of self-driving cars that will prevent loss of life (Holstein 4).Self-driving cars primarily rely on the use of electronic sensors, GPS and other pertinent technology that enable the automobile to find its way within a distance of 15miles. Also, the cars have inbuilt computer monitors and systems, which are operated by assigned tech savvy attendants. In other instances, these cars are driven by a human with the help of computer technology and robots. Hence, the level of accuracy brought about by the use of computers cannot match that of humans. The above assertion depicts that various factors could cause roads accidents and require drivers that are alert and focused on the road. In contrast, self-driving cars eliminate the human errors that result in over eighty percent of the road accidents that happen in the United States. Furthermore, Bonnefon, Shariff, and Rahwan explained that computers are designed to control autonomous vehicles, thus, are effective at eliminating all the dangers including human error and fatigue, which could occur from the operations of vehicles thereby enhancing safety standards measures (1574). The researchers further noted that a sophisticated algorithm is used for the creation of a system to determine the safest distance between the self-driving car and the other human-driven vehicle. Also, their processors are designed to compute all the probable situations and consequences within seconds before the self-driving car execute actions or a chain of command for an event.According to McBride, and Neil, self-driving cars employ systems and designs that operate platooning systems, which permit them to communicate with one another on problems associated with traffic conditions, as well as those factors that can lead to occurrence an accident (184). Consequently, self-driving cars are efficient to the extent that they may not need anyone on board. These cars can estimate mileage since they act according to computer commands. Therefore, all controls are guaranteed including overtaking and emergency braking. This will aid in averting congestion since they are computer controlled, which safeguard observance of traffic rules in their entirety. In essence, self-driving cars can pre-determine the safest and uncongested route to take in case of a traffic jam. Thus, commuters are provided with the value for money since they spend less time commuting (Surden and Mary-Anne 11).Also, self-driving cars emit less toxic carbon (II) and carbon (IV), which are not environmentally friendly, because most of them use green energy like solar and wind energy. The self-driving cars reduce overreliance on the use of petroleum products, which are depleting. Conversely, the technology used by self-driving cars optimizes fuel consumption and on the other hand, has low impacts on the environment. These reasons are considered as the contributing factors for the increased rate of clamor to utilize self-driving vehicles (Surden and Mary-Anne 43). Moreover, self-driving cars are cost-effectiveness, a benefit that should increase people’s preferences on self-driving cars over the human-driven cars. As Holstein explained, a cost-effective dimension of the arguments can be supported if self-driving cars could be examined from the time saved by drivers when computers drive their vehicles (3). While some might argue that this line of argument is flawed because of the lack of data to support it, it is untrue due to the information on the assigned value of each human life in the United States. Therefore, rather than spending several hours on the road driving, these individuals can use the time to engage in other productive ventures that would aid in building the national, which in the end improves the quality of human life.Self-driven cars, however, are limited in third world countries due to the poor condition of the roads and the technology, which limit the car sensors to perform efficiently. The technology used to produce self-driving cars makes them efficient and safe, as well as a proactive remedy to the series of problems that result in the roadway carnage and injuries. Self-driving cars use technology controlled by computers, and therefore they are susceptible to cyber-attacks such as hacking or malicious programs aimed at corrupting their systems. The cyber-attack on these cars can make them not function normally, and the results can be catastrophic. However, if these concerns are addressed, current evidence depicts that self-driving cars are the best alternative for saving lives, prevention of loss of economic gains in the society, and cost of accident management. Works CitedBonnefon, J.-F.; Shariff, A.; Rahwan, I. The social dilemma of autonomous vehicles. Science 2016, 352, 1573–1576. Accessed on 31 Oct 2017.Holstein, Tobias. “The Misconception of Ethical Dilemmas in Self-Driving Cars.” Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute Proceedings. Vol. 1. No. 3. 2017. Accessed on 31 Oct 2017.McBride, Neil. “The ethics of driverless cars.” ACM SIGCAS Computers and Society 45.3 (2016): 179-184. Accessed on 31 Oct 2017.Surden, Harry, and Mary-Anne Williams. “Technological Opacity, Predictability, and Self-Driving Cars.” SSRN Electronic Journal, vol. 38, no. 1, 2016, pp. 1-62.