RAM cells consisting of capacitors and transistors, which millions

RAM (random access memory) is the memory that the computer
can use ‘randomly’, this is the memory that is kept available for programs to
use – the memory available is measured in gigabytes (GB) and speed is measured
in megahertz. This means the more RAM a computer has, the faster it will
operate and will be able to operate more software at the same time, this memory
is known as volatile memory as it is lost when the system is powered off, which
is why we save our games/work and they go to storage – the hard drive. Unlike
ROM (read only memory), which cannot be lost or altered. ROM does basic,
necessary functions such as booting up a computer system as it contains the
BIOS. The BIOS on the ROM chip is a collection of software utilities that boots
up the system every time it is turned on while checking the hardware
configuration against the configuration data called the POST process (power on
self-test).

There are a number of different types of RAM; dynamic RAM
(DRAM) is memory that stores bits of data in cells consisting of capacitors and
transistors, which millions of the cells make up the RAM – the memory must be
repeatedly refreshed, or it will forget the data it was holding, this process
takes more time and slows down the memory. On the other hand, static RAM (SRAM)
is made up of 4/6 transistors plus wiring and retains its data in its memory as
long as the computer has power, so it does not need to be refreshed, which
makes it faster than DRAM but also more expensive.

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Rambus dynamic RAM uses a RAM controller and bus connected
directly to the processor and other devices that require it and provides a
consistent 1.6 GB per second of memory bandwidth that runs at 800 MHz; this
type of memory was useful in earlier gaming platforms like the N64. However,
modern memory has used variations of these types to create faster, more
efficient forms of RAM. Synchronous dynamic RAM SDRAM was a variation in the
1990s that allowed the memory’s responses to be synchronised to controls inputs
in the data buses – this meant it could queue processes up whilst a process is
being completed.

Double
date rate (DDR) was introduced in 2000 which allowed the memory to transfer
data on the falling as well as the rising edges of the clock signal so that it
was continuous and doubled the transfer rate and allowed RAM to run at a lower
clock rates to use fewer volts but still keep up higher transfer speeds. The
DDR versions of RAM have been upgraded into their fourth version today by
expanding on the existing idea, the DDR4 RAM allows up to twice as much GB
(4-16 GB), doubled data rates, and a lower voltage required to run. For
examples of different RAM usage, the Samsung Galaxy S7 uses 4 GB of DDR4 RAM,
and Nintendo 3DS XL uses 128 MB of FCRAM (a type of SDRAM developed by Fujitsu
and Toshiba). While the PS4 Pro uses GDDR5 8 GB RAM which is a type of RAM that
only works for graphics cards and desktop PCs can have as much RAM as the
motherboard and OS can support but adding more than necessary does not make a
computer faster.