Racial profiling is the act of suspecting
or the targeting of a person using the basis of the race of such a person to
further the idea of stereotyping about the race of such a person without
focusing on the individual suspicion of such a person. It is prudent that
racial profiling by the police has been fueled by racial segregation and the
same has had a negative impact on the police force because of the reduction of
public confidence on the police which has then affected the operation and the
activities of the police in the modern society. In this manner, there is a need
to examine the same and identify how it affects the daily lives of the
population, people under the greatest threat of the same, and suggested
solutions that can bring a long-term solution and improve living conditions of
It is prudent that the issue of racial
profiling is widespread in Canada and Toronto has been the center of the vice
thereby establishing the need to examine the same with the view of creating a
long-term solution. Despite governments rolling out various inquiries to
examine the same, a lot less has been done because there is no action taken
against the police with the view of ending the vice (Hayle, Wortley, & Tanner, 2016). The
blacks decry discrimination against them and the poor police in the city, a
matter which has made live difficult for them in Canada. According to Ontario
Human Rights Commission (OHRC), ‘public interest inquiry’ into the racial
profiling by the Toronto police only proves what the blacks in the city knows
but offers not the solution to challenges that the blacks face. The conduct of
Toronto Police Service (TPS) has been under scrutiny for a long time (Zack,
2015). Racial profiling police in Canada is a critical issue, and the
authorities need to find a long-term solution to the same because it affects
the daily lives of blacks, limits their engagement in economic development and
threatens unity between the blacks and whites in Canada.
To help in addressing the issue of police
racial profiling in Canada, there are questions that help to address the issue
and create a solution to the same, and some of them include:
1. Why has
the issue of police racial profiling lasted for so long in Canada?
2. What is
the role of the police in ending racial profiling?
does political leadership influence the issue of police racial profiling?
4. What is
the evidence of racial discrimination by the police?
Who are the people under the greatest threat?
Seeking solutions to the above questions would
help to get a holistic overview of the police racial discrimination in Canada
and suggest solutions to the problem and improve quality of lives for the black
community (Bell, Hopson,
Craig, & Robinson, 2014). First, in soliciting answers to the
reasons why police racial discrimination has lasted for long in the country,
one issue that comes out is that the police force is not determined to end
police racial discrimination in the country and research reveal that the police
only get to do the right thing when they receive pressure from politicians.
However, it is on very rare occasions that politicians force them to act to end
racial discrimination (Lewis, 2015). Lack of willingness of politicians in the
city and the province is the reason behind the widespread cases of
discrimination and why it has remained a problem ravaging the society for a
According to the Ontario Human Right
Commission, the issue of police racial discrimination in Canada has affected
generations and those who faced the form of discrimination in their youth still
warn their grandchildren about the vice in the society. The long-term vice in
country suggest a never-ending problem thereby suggesting a dark future for the
blacks in Canada; this is because the problem has been allowed to continue for
decades without a solution being sought (Peirone,
Maticka-Tyndale, Gbadebo, & Kerr, 2017). The other reason why police
racial discrimination has overstayed in Canada is that there is lack of
diversity in the police force and a majority of the police are whites thereby
making it challenging to develop initiatives to tackle the menace in the
society. Finally, there are no or weak policies on police racial discrimination
that can help in eliminating police racial discrimination in the country
thereby making it challenging to prosecute perpetrators of the same (Mosher,
& Akins, 2015).
The police can play a great role in ending
the vice in the society, and this calls for their active engagement in
community welfare and works with different organizations to end the vice. In
this manner, there is a need for the police, TPS, to become actively engaged
with various stakeholders among them being the non-governmental organizations
and take actions on the reports and inquiries (Marshall, 2017). Police should crack a whip
on the police officers that show explicit bias in the delivery of police
services and offer uniform services to the population. Additionally, the police
can improve the relationship with the community and collaborate with them to end
the cases of police profiling against the black community (Seigel, 2017). By
improving the relationship with the community, the police will have an easy
time identifying the challenges facing the community and the community will
suggest ways of ending the vice to the police.
Furthermore, the police force should be
actively involved with the police and provide necessary report and data to
highlight areas that face the biggest threat of police profiling. Besides, the
police force should devolve more funds and resources to fighting of police
racial profiling by providing office space for recording the forms of racial
profiling which help to acquire raw data on the same (Khenti, 2014).
Additionally, having a watchdog can help to monitor the conduct of the police
and prosecute officers that profile the black community with the view of
discouraging others to desist from the same. Finally, the Toronto police should
provide documents under legal obligations to the Ontario human rights code
With regards to the political leadership in
the country, it is prudent that politicians can play a great role to end police
racial profiling. One of the duties of politicians is to enact stringent laws
and tough punitive measures against the police officers who further racial
profiling (Bell, Hopson,
Craig, & Robinson, 2014). The tough punitive measures would help
to discourage police racial profiling and create a long-term solution to the
vice. Additionally, the political class can also rally the people to strengthen
civil rights movement and advocate for equal rights for all races and prevent
cases of discrimination in the country. Furthermore, politicians can use their
authority in the political class to force the police to make the necessary
changes and stop the cases of discrimination in the society (Zack, 2015). The
political power can play a great role in Canada and such authority can help in
ending the vice in the society and improve lives of the population.
Moreover, the conduct of the political
class during and after campaigns also play a role in ending police racial
profiling in Canada. In this manner, the police should be role models to the
communities and act in accordance sensitize the population on the importance of
a unified society to as to boost unity and end racial segregation. Politicians
should not base their political affiliations on the races, but such should be
policy-based, the result of the same is a better society (Lewis, 2015).
Finally, there is a need for politicians to encourage uniform development in
the society without any form of favoritism in the provision of services to the
population and boost diversity in the population.
The evidence of police racial profiling in
Canada is the discriminative stopping and questioning of drivers where the
police tend to stop black drivers while allowing the white drivers to pass the
road check without questioning (Hayle,
Wortley, & Tanner, 2016). The other evidence of profiling is the
use of force against the blacks when the police carry out routine checks; the
same force is not applied on the whites in the same cases. The other evidence
of police racial profiling is a high number of arrests and charges among the
black races; this is in addition to the forms and conditions of release for
various offense categories among them being possession of drugs obstruction of
justice or police assault (Marshall,
Furthermore, the police usually apply selective justice for minor offenses such
as causing disturbance and failure to comply with bail condition.
The people that usually fall victims of
police racial profiling are black women and the blacks that are mentally
challenged, and this is evident in the disproportionate use of brutal force
among such groups of people. In this manner, the effect of such cases of
discrimination is widespread thereby leading to the need to create a long-term
solution by working with both government agencies and the population (Kitossa,
2014). Learning about police racial profiling the in Canada helps to identify
the effects of the same which informs strategies required to end the vice and
create a society that encourages growth and development for all. There is a
need for additional research to identify solutions that can be used to end the
vice and create a society where everyone can live and grow (Seigel, 2017).
Finally, there should be an overhaul of the police force in Canada to weed out
the officers that encourage racial discrimination and encourage diversity in
the police force.
Examining the cases of police racial
profiling in Canada helps to highlight the cases of racial profiling and the
challenges that the victims go through in their daily lives. It is prudent to
acknowledge that a lot is needed to create a long-term solution and everyone
needs to participate in changing the social fabric of the society to boost
inclusivity and unity in the society. Additionally, the civil right movement
should improve their activities and participation in the society and advocate
for equal right in the society and eliminate any cases of discrimination. The
same suggestion is directed towards the government of Canada which is seen to
be dismissing the cry of the black population for decades thereby allowing
perpetuation of the vice. In this case, the government of Canada should set
stringent policies to help curb police racial profiling and take punitive
measures against police officers that encourage racial discrimination.
Bell, G. C., Hopson, M. C., Craig,
R., & Robinson, N. W. (2014). Exploring black and white accounts of
21st-century racial profiling: Riding and driving while black. Qualitative
Research Reports in Communication, 15(1), 33-42.
Hayle, S., Wortley, S., &
Tanner, J. (2016). Race, street life, and policing: Implications for racial
profiling. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 58(3),
Khenti, A. (2014). The Canadian war
on drugs: Structural violence and unequal treatment of Black Canadians. International
Journal of Drug Policy, 25(2), 190-195.
Kitossa, T. (2014). Authoritarian
criminology and the racial profiling debate in Canada: Scientism as epistemic
violence. African Journal of Criminology and Justice Studies: AJCJS, 8(1),
Lewis, D. S. (2015). Police
decision-making following an accusation of racial profiling: A qualitative case
study (Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix).
Marshall, L. (2017). Racial
Disparities in Police Stops in Kingston, Ontario: Democratic Racism and
Canadian Racial Profiling in Theoretical Perspective (Doctoral dissertation).
Mosher, C., & Akins, S. (2015).
Drugs and drug control in Canada. Pan African issues in drugs and drug
control-An international perspective, 283-347.
Peirone, A., Maticka-Tyndale, E.,
Gbadebo, K., & Kerr, J. (2017). The Social Environment of Daily Life and
Perceptions of Police and/or Court Discrimination among African, Caribbean, and
Black Youth. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 59(3),
Seigel, M. (2017). The dilemma of
‘racial profiling’: an abolitionist police history. Contemporary Justice
Zack, N. (2015). White Privilege
and black rights: The injustice of us police racial profiling and homicide.
Rowman & Littlefield.