Qualitative participants cheaply and effectively thanks to the use

Qualitative methods are different to quantitative methods in that the data collected is more detailed and extensive about a certain individual and does not simply make use of numerical data. There are many different types of qualitative methods used to collect data, but in this essay, the focus will be on questionnaires as a form of qualitative research. Questionnaires are one of the most popular methods used by psychology researchers simply because they are a good way to gain information and form relationships between the different variables or factors. Questionnaires are extremely familiar to almost everyone and have been used for many years. An early example of a questionnaire, which was used to investigate type A personality, was used by Friedman and Rosenman in 1974. Questionnaires can be used to research a large array of topics and answer all sorts of questions. They are seen to be a cost effective way of collecting a substantial amount of data. A few advantages of questionnaires include reaching a large group of participants cheaply and effectively thanks to the use of the internet as well as  the fact that conclusions can be drawn relatively quickly. Some disadvantages include the wrong questions being asked, misunderstanding within participants and a lack of honesty when participants are answering questions. There are two main types of questions that are asked in any questionnaire and those include closed questions and open questions. Closed questions offer a selection of answers that are predetermined by the researcher, which are easy to answer but also limit the participants’ answering abilities. Open questions have no predetermined answers and allow participants to answer freely, which would take more time than closed questions but would allow for more in-depth answers to be obtained. When designing a questionnaire, researchers can make use of different response options. These include Likert scales and semantic differential scales. The Likert scale was developed in 1932 and is most commonly used in questionnaires. This type of scale is used to show the levels of agreement, frequency, importance, and likelihood. There are normally five or seven points on the scale and the use of odd numbers is important to note as respondents are able to show neutrality. Some researchers may remove the neutral option, making the scale have an even number of points. The other response option is the semantic differential scale, which measures the connotative meaning of various objects and ideas. This scale uses opposing adjectives at each end with between one to seven blanks in between. Respondents then fill in the blank relative to their answer.