Pure alcohols and mixture ofalcohols with water are mostly used in the pharmaceutical industry, enology,and cosmetics and also used as a source of energy 153-155.Complex interactions observedbetween alcohols and water. Through H-bonding both water and alcohols are selfassociated. Alcohols contains hydrophobic group as well as hydrophilic -OHgroup. Both the groups show different mode of interactions towards water.
H-bond formed between water and alcoholic hydrophilic –OH group. There isnormal water structure disrupts during hydrophilic interactions. In hydrophobicinteraction alkyl group promotes water molecule structure surrounding thegroup. Water-Alcohols interaction study has importance to know hydrophilic andhydrophobic interactions so it has considerable importance in solutionchemistry field. Water + alcohol solutions shows both hydrophilic and hydrophobicinteractions effect 156.During mixing of components thereis contraction and expansion effect occurs. It affects on sign and magnitude ofexcess molar volume (VE).v Factorsresponsible for contraction on mixing are 157Ø Physicalinteractions- Dipole-dipole interactions, Dipole-induced dipole interactions.
Ø Typeof chemical interaction.Ø Fittingof molecule of component geometrically.Ø Inwater rich region hydrophobic hydration interaction occurs in which highlyordered water surrounds organic solute.
Ø Onecomponent occupy void spaces of other molecule it possible when there is largedifference in molecular size.v Factorsresponsible for expansion on mixing areØ Sterichindrance.Ø Whenone or both components dissociated.
Ø Solute-Solventbond formed is weaker than solvent-solvent and solute-solute bond.Ø Mismatchof geometry in molecules.The excess molar volume VEis calculated by use of following equation … (3.1)Where, M1, M2 are molecular weights, X1, X2 are molefractions and ?1, ?2are density of components 1 & 2 respectively of binary mixtures. ?12 is the mixtures density158.3.2. Literature SurveyM.
H. Kabir et. al. studied excessmolar volume and density of methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol in water and surfexcel + water solutions. Density measurement was carried out for 0.
05 to 0.1 %surf excel in water and also methanol, ethanol and n-propanol in water.Temperature range was from 303.
15 to 323.15 K for whole composition range 159.Caibin xiao et.al.
has worked ondensity and excess molar volume of methanol + water. For temperatures from 323K to 573 K. Densities was measured using vibrating tube densimeter. The datatreated with modified corresponding states model depends on pure waterproperties 160.Jose V. Herraez, R.
Belda reported density, excessmolar volumes and refractive index of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol,2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol in water at temperature 298.15 K. refractive indicesvariation with temperature determined in temperature range (278.15 to 338.15) Kat atmospheric pressure161.Zadjia Atik worked on excess molarvolume and densities of binary mixture like 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol with1-propanol, 2-propanol also in acetone + water, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol,2-propanol with water.
Ternary mixture used are water + acetone +2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, water + methanol + 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, water +ethanol + 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, water + 1-propanol + 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol,water + 2-propanol + 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol at temperature of 298.15 K andpressure 101 kpa 162.Hideki mori et.al. have worked ondensities and excess molar volume of binary mixtures of methanol, ethanol,1-propanol in water, ethanol + 1-propanol. Ternary mixtures used are water +methanol + ethanol, water + ethanol + 1-propanol, water + methanol +1-propanol; quaternary mixtures used are water + methanol + ethanol +1-propanol. Measurements were carried out at 298.
15, 308.15, 318.15, 328.15 and338.15 K. results correlated with NRTL type equation 163.Marion Martinez-reina and EliseoAmado Gonzalez studied density, excess properties and refractive indices ofbinary mixtures of water, hexane, heptane and octane with ethanol attemperatures 293.
15, 298.15, 303.15 and 308.15 K.
over entire range ofcomposition at atmospheric pressure. Fourth order Redlich-Kister equation usedfor determining the adjustable parameters 164.Tong-Chun Bai et.al. Worked ondensity, excess molar volume of binary mixtures DMF + water, ethanol + water,DMF + ethanol and ternary mixture of N,N-dimethylforamide + ethanol + water atT=298.15 K were reported.
some empirical expressions were used to correlate andpredict tertiary excess molar volumes 165.Dikko A.B. et.
al. Worked ondensity, excess molar volume, partial molar volume, viscocity and excessviscocity of panadol in water + methanol at temperature 309.15 K. measurementwere carried out over entire percentage range of methanol 166.