Platelets/Blood clotting factorsThe role of platelets is that it helps the blood to clot at a wound. Ifthe blood vessel wall is damaged, platelets seal and clot the wound which stopthe blood cells to be lost and it also helps to prevent pathogens entering theblood via the wound. Platelets are used to treatbone marrow failure and leukaemia. It is also used for following a transplantor chemotherapy treatments.
In addition,it is needed during pregnancy as there will be shortage of platelets and it isused for thrombocytopenia (lowplatelet count caused by cancer, anaemia or viral infection. Also, it is usedfor bacteria in the blood, medication, liverdisease (clotting proteins are affected in blood plasma) and sepsis (low platelet count and causeabnormal clotting). Haemophilia diseasecan be treated with factor VIII transfusion and this is a blood clottingprotein. This is also known as anti-haemophilic factor (AHF).The process of blood clotting (coagulation) involvesblood vessel being damaged first and then plasma fibrin starts to make stickythreads. Then, it allows the platelets and other blood cells to be trappedwhich then enable the formation of blood clot. Hard scab is then formed andtissue below is fixed and repaired.
Finally, scab falls off and scar is made.Thrombocytopenia condition is caused when the blood contains low number of platelets. Platelets arealso known as thrombocytes which are created in the bone marrow and it helpwith the clotting of blood. The person will bleed a lot if they have a lownumber of platelets in the blood. In addition, people can have thrombocytopeniawhen the spleen become large or when they have cancer like leukaemia. This canmake the platelet number in the blood to decrease. Chemotherapy treatment uses drugs which can results in blood havinglow number of platelets.
Platelets transfusionis used for this type of condition to increase the number of platelets in theblood.The liver helps with bloodclotting and it produces different proteins such as protein c and it alsoproduces coagulation factors such as factor V and XI. Liver disease can decreasethe number of proteins and coagulation factors within the blood therefore, blood clotting factors transfusion isused to increase the protein and coagulation factors in the blood to help withthe clotting process. Sepsis is acondition that causes low number of platelets in the blood and lead to abnormal clotting. If it is not treated,it leads to failure of the organ and even causes death.
Therefore, platelets transfusion can be used toincrease the number of platelets in the blood.Intravenous immuneglobulin (IVIG)Immunoglobin is blood proteins mixture which is known as antibodiesand they are created with the help of our immune system. Immunoglobin helps tofight against infection or disease. Immunoglobin that is liquid is derived fromthe donors of blood plasma via their vein (arm) and they are screened andchecked to ensure that they are healthy. They are screened to see if they carryserious infections such as AIDS and hepatitis.The blood plasma then purified to befor IVIG therapy. It requires 1000of human donors to produce one dose.
In addition, IVIG can be used to treatboth primary and secondary immunedeficiencies such as infections, autoimmune and disorders(neuroimmunological).IVIG treatmentcan help to strengthen the immune systemthat are weak therefore, the person can fight over infections and be healthy. Thistreatment can be used to treat different autoimmune disorder which affects CNSsuch as multiple sclerosis.When Immunoglobin is derived fromthe blood plasma and IgG type isremoved from the blood plasma that is donated. Also, IgG helps to fight against bacteria and virus and it contain other effects so, it can be usedfor autoimmune problems. Some people choose to have IVIg than other medicationslike corticosteroids, immunosuppressant and biologic drugs in order to treattheir immune problems. Furthermore, IVIg can be taken other medications such asimmunosuppressant.
Our immune system can normally produce enough antibodies to fight against germs thatlead to infections however, our body cannot be able to produce enoughantibodies when we have immune deficiency therefore, you will have a higherrisk of getting infections. IVIg helps to gives antibodies to fight over theinfections. Moreover, autoimmune diseases such as lupus can help the body to increasethe red blood cell counts and low red cell counts can lead to anaemia. IVIg canhelp to prevent the WBCs of people with lupus from damaging their RBCs. Bothadults and children can receive this IVIg therapy.