Plastic Thermosetting plastics. Thermoplastics are those substances that can

Plastic is a
general term for synthetic or semi-synthetic material made from wide range of
organic polymer such as polyethylene, PVC, nylon that can be moulded into any
structure or sculpture while soft and set into rigid or slightly rigid form.

Plastics can
be said as a building materials as they are being used for various purposes in
our daily life (Gnanavel et al.,2012) everywhere we look we will find plastics.
We use plastic products to make our lives cleaner, easier, safer and more
enjoyable. We can find plastics in the clothes we wear, the houses we live in,
and the cars we travel in. The toys we play with, the televisions we watch, the
computers we use and the CDs we listen are all made up of plastics. Even from
the toothbrush we use to the most sophisticated machines use every day contains
plastics!
The term ”plastic” is derived from the Greek word ”plastikos” meaning fit
for moulding into any shape and size, and ”plastos” meaning moulded. Plastic
refers to the material’s malleability, or plasticity properties exhibited
during manufacture, that allows it to be cast, pressed, or extruded into a
variety of shapes – such as films, fibres, plates, tubes, bottles, boxes, and
much more.
Plastic material can be categorized into two broad categories: Thermoplastics
and Thermosetting plastics. Thermoplastics are those substances that can be
heated up to form products and then if these end products are re-heated, the
plastic will soften and melt again.  In contrast, thermoset plastics are
those substances that can be melted and formed, but once they take shape after
they have solidified, they stay solid and, unlike thermoplastics cannot be re
melted.

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Need to biodegrade plastic

Once discarded, plastic materials can take
centuries to break down or to degrade. They clog up landfills and overburden
waste-processing facilities they causes the environmental pollution by getting
accumulated in the environment this takes place because of their stable nature
(Hemashenpagam et al.,2013;). In most of the countries this plastic pollution
is caused due to improper recycling and waste management systems (Jayasiri et
al, 2013). Biodegradation is a process in which we include microorganisms such
as bacteria and fungi that has the capacity to degrade the polythene and hence
the process of Biodegradation is one of the most trendy topic in the field of
degradation of harmful waste (Gu et al,2000). The microbial degradation of
plastic is carried out by enzymatic activities which leads to the breakdown of
polymer into monomers and oligomers followed by metabolism by microbial cells.
Aerobic metabolism leads to the production of carbon dioxide and water
(Starnecker and Menner,1996) and on the other side of the coin anaerobic
metabolism leads to the production of carbon dioxide, water and methane as the
end products (Gu et al.,2000). Worldwide utilization of polyethylene is
increasing at a rate of 12% per annum and approximately 140 million tones of
synthetic polymers are produced each year (Shimao, 2001). It takes thousands of
years for their efficient degradation. Huge amount of polythene getting
accumulated in the environment, so their disposal creates a big problem in