Plants have played a significant role in maintaining human health and improving the quality of life for thousands of years. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) around 80% of developing countries depend on plants as medicine for their primary health care needs (Craig, 1999). Traditional medicine has a great impact on the health system worldwide including developing countries like Saudi Arabia as it plays an important role in the prevention from various pathogenic microorganisms and the treatment of many diseases such as inflammatory, infection and wound healing.
Plants represent a cheap, accessible and reliable source of medicine; they are used traditionally in wounds treatment in the form of teas, decoctions, tinctures, syrups, oils, ointments and infusions. Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process for the repair of devitalized and missing cellular structures and tissue layers that restores the function and integrity of damaged tissues (Kumar et al., 2007)
An appropriate wound healing is essential for the repair of the disturbed skin (Begum and Nath, 2000). Many factors contribute to delay in wound healing. These include repeated injury, infection, oxygenation, free radical generation (Adiele et al. 2014). Using a drug having antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials could be an important factor in the healing process of wounds to avoid complications (Rahman, et.al.2017). Numerous antibiotics are being used for treatment of infections, however, they have been associated with adverse effects and some pathogens develop resistance against them. Therefore, focusing now is on biologically active components from plant sources that may be used as potential for finding natural antimicrobial agents (Nickavar B, 2008). As well as finding natural sources for antioxidant activity in order to eliminate the side effect of the synthetic antioxidants which absorbed and accumulate in the human body causing toxicity and it might be carcinogenic (Nascimento, 2000).
Saudi Arabia is gifted with a wide range of flora consisting of a large number of shrubs and trees, including more than 1200 of its 2250 species used as medicinal plant (Rahman et al. 2004). Local people and medicinal healers use these medicinal plants for the cure of many ailments. One of these plants is M. longifolia L. traditionally known as Mint and Habak, belonging to the genus Mentha of the family Lamiaceae, is an aromatic perennial herb with strong mint smell (Boulos, 2000). Mint is commonly used in the Mediterranean diet as herbal teas and spices (Conforti et al., 2008). It is often used as a domestic herbal remedy, being valued especially for its antiseptic properties (Amini, 1997). It is highly valued within Madina communities in Saud and has been used as an antispasmodic and for treatment of colds, stomach pain, for menstruation pain and as an antiseptic for genital infections and wound healing (oral communication). The leaves were reported in the treatment of fevers, headaches and digestive disorders as an antispasmodic (Duke, 2002). M. longifolia contains a great quantity of essential oils and their glycosides including menthol (Shaiq Ali, Saleem, Ahmad, Parvez, & Yamdagni, 2002), piperitone and piperitenone oxide (Mkaddem et al., 2009). Pharmacologically, most of the literature have been described for its anti-bacterial (Pajohi, Tajik, Farshid, Basti, & Hadian, 2011), antifungal (Sarac & Ugur, 2009) antioxidant (López et al., 2010) and anti-inflammatory activities (Conforti, et al., 2008). (Shah, Bhulani, Khan, Rehman, & Gilani, 2010). However, there is no scientific data available for its wound-healing property. Therefore, the present study was carried out to scientifically evaluate the pharmacological properties of wound-healing for aqueous plant extract from flowering and aerial parts of M. longifolia extract with respect to its traditional uses. To support the study, antimicrobial antioxidant evaluation of the extract was also carried out on bacterial strains which are mainly involved in wound infection (Mikaili, 2013). The cytogenetic toxicity and anti-proliferating effects of the crude leaf extract of M. Longifolia was evaluated on onion using their root tip meristematic by calculation of mitosis division index.