is a machine that uses
electromagnetic fields to move particles to speed of light
and to contain them in well-defined beams.
?It is an equipment for
accelerating subatomic particles to high speeds by the use of
electric or electromagnetic fields.
?The particles in the machine are meant to collide with other
particles during experiments
?Direct particle accelerators are made for particles to collide with other particles in a
straight, or linear ray line
?Ring-shaped particle accelerators are made for particles to collide in a around circular
?Straight particle accelerators are meant for secure-point (a fixed-target) experiments.
?Where as ring-shaped
particle accelerators are meant to be used for both secure-point or any
given target in the experiment
?The first particle accelerator was
invented In 1930, by a 27-year-old
physicist Ernest Lawrence at the University of California. It
was only 10cm across and 5inches with diameter.
?it only accelerated particles up
to energy of 80,000 electronvolts.
?A particle accelerator utilize electric fields to speed up and increase
the energy of a ray of particles
?The particle source
(radiofrequency (RF) cavities) provides the particles, such as protons
or electrons that are to be accelerated in
the machine during experiments.
•Ray of particles
then travels inside a vacuum in the metal beam pipe
•The vacuum in the
metal beam pipe maintains an air and dust free environment for rays of
particles to travel inside the pipe freely. Electromagnets guide and center the
ray of particles to travel through the vacuum pipe.
position everywhere around the particle accelerator, lever from positive to a
negative at a specific given frequency.
waves that accelerate particles in groups. Particles can be conducted at a
secure point, or two ray of particles are impacted.
•Particle radar then
can document and disclose the particles and radiation that are produced by the
impact of two ray of particles or at the secure-point.
?Particle accelerator have many social
impact, such as Powerful X-rays from particle accelerator uses accelerator light
detectors, to allow scientists to know the structures of protein quickly and accurately,
it leads them to the development of new drugs to cure major disease such as
cancer and diabetes
are used for cleaning air and water: shock wave of
electrons from a accelerator help clean dirty water, polluted gases etc.
?It is Potentialy
to treat nuclear waste and permit the use of an another
(alternative) fuel, for the manufacture of nuclear energy.
?Accelerator light d
?For treating a certain kind of cancer, the best tool is to use a
particle beam. Many Hospitals use particle accelerator to treat patients who have cancer
?The way to treat main types of cancer is through surgery, chemotherapy,
radiotherapy,these are the ways to destroy cancer by energy place by radiation.
?Radiation therapy is therapy where approximately 50% of all patients
with cancer will undergo, so that their cancer is destroyed.
?How the radiation therapy works is that,
an exterior beam of radiation is fired into the body by a particle accelerator.
way the patients cancer is killed completely.
to examine, and alternate how the ribosome converts DNA information into life.
?The worker In the particle
accelerator needs to be careful because Radiation constructed during operation and the
radioactive waste produced from operation can be harmful for them, so that is why they need to be
?During operations in hospitals, accelerators produce x-rays,
which can be an exterior radiation danger to those who work near an accelerator, so
that is why workers need to be carful during operations.
?The radiation produced from the particle accelerator, can have an consequence on the growth of vegetation and
other living organisms directly above on the surface.
radioactive waste created from the performance of the particle accelerator, if not minded off properly, can cause a risk to the wildlife & vegetation in the area of where the waste is
?There are More than 30,000 particle accelerators active worldwide; and Less than 200 particle accelerator
are for research purposes.
? The impact of world economy has is that, it is much
larger than just the sales of these particle accelerators;
Products and processes produced have a financial value that is
100-1000 times larger than the cost needed to bring a
project commercially functional to its status
?100 billion dollars of
products that processed, treated or inspected by the particle beams of
industrial accelerators worldwide have that much of an great annual value;
which is more then 100 billion dollars per year.
?The worlds largest particle
accelerator (LHC ) which is located between the border of
Switzerland and France, consists of a 27-kilometre ring of
superconducting magnets. with many of accelerating structures to boost the
energy of the particles in the accelerator along the way.
?Large hardon collider Sometimes called an “atom
?Hadrons at high speeds is an Device that propels subatomic particles along the way in the particle accelerator
?The particle accelerator of Ernest Lawrence’s was 10 cm across and it
fitted pleasantly on a bench top. It cost (surely at 1932 prices) $25.
?Large Hadron Collider (LHC) (worlds largest particle accelerator), has a diameter of 8.6km (5.3 miles) and
does not even fit in one country. The total operating budget of the LHC runs to
about $1 billion per year.
? The total cost was about
?According to Stephen hawking,Particle accelerators are the nearest
thing we have to time machines.
?The worlds hottest temperature
for producing a world record of 7.2 trillion degrees of Fahrenheit was produced
in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (a particle accelerator).
?The inside of the Large Hadron
Collider is colder than outer space, it operates at a frosty minus 456.3
?The diameter of the first
ring-shaped accelerator was shorter than 5 inches; the diameter of the Large
Hadron Collider is more than 5 miles.