Parenting strategies used by parents to control and socialize

Parenting styles

A.Term parenting styles and explain categories

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– The term parenting style refers to behaviors and strategies used by parents to control and socialize their children (Lightfoot, Cole & Cole, 2009). 

– The idea that parenting styles exist was originally observed by Diana Baumrind in the 1970’s and she categorized it into authoritative, authoritarian and permissive parenting styles —> Briefly explain all three of them

B. Reassesment of parenting styles

Researchers, Maccoby and Martin reassessed the three styles of parenting in 1983 —> Baumrind’s findings + using demandingness and responsiveness as measures. They concluded that there are now more parenting styles because the permissive style ended up to be divided into two different parenting techniques when considering observed levels of demandingness and responsiveness. This resulted in permissive and neglecting labels for these styles of parenting. Consequently, four parenting styles have widely been acknowledged to exist, authoritative (high on demandingness and responsiveness), authoritarian (high on demandingness, low on responsiveness), permissive (low on demandingness, high on responsiveness), and neglecting (low on both responsiveness and demandingess) (Maccoby & Martin, 1983).

C. Findings parenting styles and their consequences

Research later by Steinberg et al. (1994) supports these four dimensions. Also, their research showed that children with authoritative parents were more competent than children that grew up with other parenting styles, in academic, social and emotional abilities. Children with authoritarian 
parenting styles: lower levels of well being compared to children with other parenting styles. Children with indulgent parents had high levels of well being, but lower levels of achievement. 

Also, Steinberg et al. (1994): children with neglectful parents showed the lowest levels in all areas. Results of this study show that there is a true connection between parenting styles and personal qualities of children. 

Other research done by Grusec et al. (1994) and Pomerantz et al. (2005) found similar results: children from authoritative parents show more proficient social skills, independent problem solving, adjustment and psychological well being when compared to children raised by parents that practiced other styles of parenting. 

D. Specific aspects parenting and consequences:

Discuss findings that indicate that inconsistent parenting can be related to aggressive and antisocial behavior (e.g Lightfoot, Cole & Cole, 2009). Furthermore other studies have shown that bonding, sensitivity and responsiveness qualities in a parent are most important to the child’s successful development and the disciplinary characteristic is the least important (e.g. Shamah, 2011).

II. Self-esteem

A. Definition self-esteem:

The general term of self-esteem can be defined as one’s assessment of their own self-worth (Lightfoot, Cole & Cole, 2009).

B. Consequences low self-esteem:

E.g. Harter (1993) found that self-esteem affects mood + possible links between low self-esteem, depression. feelings of hopelessness and possibly suicide. 

Hart(1993): low self-esteem can be linked to educational failure, vulnerability to peer pressure, drug and alcohol abuse and eating disorders. 

C. Development self-esteem: 

E.g. Orth, Robins & Widaman, 2012 found that self-esteem increases throughout adolescence to middle adulthood. It begins to decrease again as one enters old age.

III. Relation between parenting styles and self-esteem

A. Discuss several findings

Hosogi et al., (2012) found that there appears to be a correlation between higher or lower levels of global self-esteem in children and certain parenting styles.

Adolescents that receive high levels of parental support and behavior monitoring have better health and are more adequate than adolescents that don ?t receive the same parenting style (Bean et al., 2003). 

Additionally another study suggests more precisely that nurturing and supportive parenting styles could improve children’s self-esteem (Yang & Liang, 2008).

Also variation in these findings: Martínez and García (2007) found that children of indulgent parents had the highest levels of self-esteem while children of authoritarian parents had the lowest. 

Martínez and García (2008): adolescents with indulgent parents had equal or higher levels of self-esteem than adolescents with authoritative parents. Additionally: adolescents with authoritarian and neglectful parents had the lowest levels of self-esteem. 

Garcia and Gracia (2009): both the children of indulgent parenting style as well as the authoritative parenting styles had the highest levels of self-esteem. This is also concluded in 2007: authoritative and indulgent parents’ children scored highest on levels of self-esteem (Martínez, García & Yubero, 2007).

—> Somewhat unclear, more research needed

Previous research concluded that specific qualities of a parent can lead to higher levels of self-esteem: E.g. the quality of supportiveness as perceived by the child predicted higher levels of implicit self-esteem (Antonopoulou, Alexopoulos & Maridaki- Kassotaki, 2012). —> children with neglecting parents would have lower levels of self-esteem.

Furthermore parents who were recognized as more nurturing (authoritative and permissive) had a positive effect on their children’s self-esteem, while parents perceived to be overprotective (authoritarian) had a negative effect (DeHart, Pelham & Tennen, 2006). 

Additionally emotional warmth (authoritative and permissive) has been positively correlated with higher levels of self-esteem, while negative loving, rejecting and anger were negatively correlated (Yang & Zhou, 2008).

IV. Social media influence on self-esteem and link with parenting

Excessive use of social media has become a problem in recent years: take away typical human interactions and replace them with conversations through the use of technology.
The proportion of teens engaging in some form of social media usage has increased from 55% in 2006 to 83% in 2012 according to Seo, Houston, Knight, & Inglish (2014).

Increase in social media use —> adolescents tend to evaluate their own self- worth and popularity based on how many friends they have or how many likes they get on their profile pictures on Facebook (Cookingham & Ryan, 2015).  

A positive feedback on Facebook should boost levels of self-esteem (Burrow & Rainone, 2016).

Those with higher levels of self- esteem seem to be more active in posting new pictures or status updates whereas those with lower levels of self-esteem are not comfortable sharing information about themselves (Tazghini & Siedlecki, 2013).

Furthermore, spending a great amount of time on social media can increase the risk for both depression and social isolation (Best et al., 2014)

Nesi & Prinstein (2015) found that girls tend to show more social comparison online which are self-relevant and this can be threatening to their self-worth —> than can lead to higher levels of depression and lower levels of self-esteem.

Valkenburg, Peter, & Schouten (2006), concluded that positive feedback on profiles enhanced adolescents’ social self-esteem and well-being while negative feedback decreased their self-esteem and well-being.

There are also studies that show social media to have positive effect on adolescents (e.g. Hamm et al., 2014; Sanfilippo, 2015) because e.g it encourages healthy lifestyles such as healthy eating and exercise (Hamm et al., 2014), and there is a positive relationship between a few personality traits, such as extraversion, and comments that were posted on their social media (Wang, Jackson, Zhang, & Su, 2012). 

Furthermore, Joinson (2004) found that social media can boost the self-esteem of those who struggle with social anxiety because communication through social media is much easier for them than communicating face to face.

– Perhaps negative effect parent-child interaction due to social media use: the problem of social media usage as it relates to a parent’s ability to bond and spend time with their children
+ possible negative consequences. 

– It could be a hypothesis that parental support buffers the relationship between self-esteem and social media-use..

V. Research question 

– How can the relationship between parenting styles, self-esteem and social media-use be explained in young adults in a university population?

– Further explain aim of the study and relevance