One of the most important amendments to the US Constitution, which guarantees the rights that are considered essential attributes of liberal democracy: freedom of religion, freedom of speech and press, the right to peacefully assemble and address the government. It is part of the Bill of Rights. The amendment, ratified in 1791, was intended to appease those citizens who were alarmed by the possible prospect of a too strong central government. In the XX century. The Supreme Court, referring to the formulation of the due process rule contained in the Fourteenth Amendment, pointed out that the freedoms declared by the First Amendment are equally protected and from interference by state authorities.
Hate crime is a term introduced by the anti-defamation league to denote the category of crimes based on the violation by representatives of most of the rights of all kinds of minorities. The crime of hatred differs from the usual offense in that, firstly it is committed against a representative of any minority (national, sexual, etc.). Secondly either before or during the commission of the offense, the offender expresses his opposition to either the activity or the very existence of this group of people. The resulting responsibility of the police officer and any law-abiding citizen is the registration of every hate act seen. The sentence for committing of a hate crime is several times more severe than for committing the same actions towards people who do not belong to any kind of minority. From this it is clear that the introduction of this category of crimes in the legal field of some states has as its goal the final imposition of the ideology of tolerance among the passive majority, which will lead the population of such states to enslavement and transformation into universal cattle.
WEEK 7: TERRORISM
Terrorism is a policy based on the systematic use of terror . Despite the legal validity of the term “terrorism”, its definition up to the present time remains ambiguous. The problem is how to limit the definition of terrorism so that the actions of legitimate freedom fighters do not fall under it. In the US law as deliberate, politically motivated violence, committed against civilians or objects by subnational groups of the federal level or clandestine agents and organizations, usually with the goal of influencing the mood of society. The terrorist acts of September 11, 2001 sometimes referred to simply as 9/11 are a series of four coordinated suicidal terrorist acts committed in the United States of America. The attack was committed by members of the terrorist organization Al-Qaeda.
After the 9/11 terrorist act, the anti-terrorist aspect came to the fore in the US national security policy. Already two decades later, Americans are noisily fighting at home and around the world with “international terrorism” of all kinds of Islamists. However, on closer examination, it turns out that in the last quarter of a century in the practice of terror in the US, Islamists were not the first to take precedence, and home-grown terrorists – US citizens, inspired by all sorts of extremist ideology and committed acts of terror in their homeland. In terms of the level of damage, before the 9/11 Islamists attack on destructiveness and the number of victims in the American history of terror, the explosion of the federal building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995, arranged by the “internal terrorist” Timothy McVeigh, took precedence. This act took 168 lives and injured more than 500 people. As it turns out, over the past 30 years the overwhelming majority (but not all) of the bloody terrorist acts were committed in the United States by internal terrorists. A recent incident with the actions of James Alex Field, who deliberately sent his car to the crowd during the August 12, 2017 riots in Charlottesville, Virginia, raised the issue of domestic terrorism in the United States again. The topic of internal terrorism in the context of general political destabilization of the country has become very relevant. In this regard, the problem of internal terrorism because of its condition, size, traditions and common resources of the country is especially politically significant in the US, like in no other country attributed to the West.