Old Testament Survey Submit Now Essay

Even though he has said he does not agree with the Gap Theorists in their beliefs that there was a society or creation of human beings before Adam and Eve; he in no way denies their belief in long geological ages which would make him an old earth advocate by way of implication. Also, he seems to promote that the human race, that exist as we know it, is God’s second attempt at creating a being(s) that would worship Him. This view says that God has no control over the outcome of His creation which is an attack on His sovereignty.

The robber with this view is that in Genesis 1 “God saw all that He had made, and behold, it was very good.And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day’. 18 Elmer Towns, by his admission that Satan fell before the seven days of creation, has God saying that Satan was a very good creation while he was in a state of falseness and rebellion against God. This implies that either God is promoting rebellion against Him as good or that He is a liar.

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But Scripture in other places explicitly states that God says rebellion is evil in His sight and that He cannot lie. 19 The irrationals of Towns in this belief moms from his failure to harmonize Scripture with Scripture.Another worthy note to consider is that he gives not a single shred of Biblical evidence of Satan falling before the seven days of creation; not explicitly nor implicitly.

This second disagreement with Towns ties in with the first; for it deals with the angels who are supposedly frozen into righteousness and believers in heaven. Elmer Towns makes the assertion that the angels who did not rebel against Him were therefore frozen into a State Of righteousness which would warrant God making a second created being for worshipping Him as an exercise of that beings freewill.Those angels who obeyed God were frozen in perpetual service”. [peg 9] “But God wanted more than worship from beings who are frozen into righteousness. He does not want men to worship Him as a machine performing a function”. 21 Elmer Towns, by these statements, makes the saints and angels worship in heaven as an odious aroma to God. This is the conclusion one must come to when evaluating his writing. For, if God did not want worship from beings that could not exercise freewill;22 then He could only get this worship from men outside of heaven.

Heaven is a place of sensibleness; only righteousness will exist in heaven. So, logically, to transport a saint to heaven would be against the will of God; thus making God a sinner Himself! Towns discusses the possible hierarchy of angels and looks at Lucifer desire to be like God as wanting to be equal with the Most High. He states that “To be God means nothing is equal to you. [peg 8] The title “Most High” describes God as possessor of heaven and earth (Gene. 14:19). Lucifer wanted God’s possessions.

“The Most High” (El Lyon) is a title of God not only emphasizing His possession of heaven and earth, but His sovereign right to exercise the divine authority of God for himself.By becoming like the Most High, he would be the possessor Of heaven and earth. By ascending into heaven, he would rule angels and ultimately enjoy his own perverted form of messianic rule. Some Calvinist might argue that only those who are elected to grace can truly worship, but I believe and would argue that God created every being to worship Him (Philippians 2:10). There are four main sections of the Old Testament. They are the Pentateuch, the historical books, poetical books and the prophets.

The Pentateuch or “Torah” (meaning The Law) consists of the first five books of the bible (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus,Numbers, and Deuteron). Moses, the hero of the Pentateuch, was traditionally assumed to be the work’s author because he received the Ten Commandments and the laws from God. However, modern scholars describe the Pentateuch as the time-worn product of four ancient writers and editors, who each revised and expanded existing work. Scholars label the unknown contributors “J,” “E,” “P,” and “D,” and identify “J” as the oldest writer and as a scribe in King Davit’s court. Different parts of the narrative and laws in the Pentateuch are ascribed to each contributor based on differences in the style and theology of the text.The Pentateuch covers the history from the beginning of time and includes Israel’s conquest of the promise land.

Genesis covers Pre-History and the Patriarchs. Genesis comes from a Greek word meaning origins. The first eleven chapters of Genesis describe the beginning of the universe, humanity, sin, and punishment. Genesis contains the story of Adam and Eve and how sin was brought into the world. In the story of the creation of Adam, Town says that some suggest that God created the home for man before He created its occupants.

This is an interesting concept that makes the creation Story much more live in today’s world. There is no time that God fall bringing to a place that He has not yet prepared for you to dwell in and enjoy. This shows our complete dependence on God for all we will ever need. The garden provided all that the first family would ever need. It is God who supplies all our needs according to His riches in glory (Philippians 4:19) until we return home. Town further states that “Man was given the privilege and responsibility of freedom. By the exercise of his personality he could serve God, or he could eat the forbidden fruit.Freedom rightly exercised has its rewards, and God communicated with man in the cool of the ay.

But freedom also has its potential hazards. God knew the dangers and warned man that if he disobeyed by eating the fruit, “Thou shall surely die. ” It is interesting to note how Dry. Town opens chapter two on page 10 – Adam: “The Man Who Had Everything to Lose (Genesis 1:26-3:24). He proves to be a good writer when he begins this chapter so catchy that one would like to read further.

‘The last day of Creation is the greatest in the sense that God created a person who mirrored Himself.The universe with its awesome power and magnificent beauty did not completely satisfy the Creator. “l will make man,” determined God. “l will make him like Myself. ” It is further fascinating that as he gets to discussing Cain, he brings out the irony of a life that possibly the mother might have thought was that promised “seed” Of a Woman that would bruise the head of the serpent. However we see that Cain chose to live his life following his selfish desires and instant gratifications and cravings. Genesis 7 and the story of the flood also sparks many a debate from many walks of life.

Many sources of water to justify the flood are mentioned; however Towns mentions the “Canopy theory” to justify the quantity of water needed for a relied flood [page 22]. The period 1999 to 2003 1 spent much of my time in Zulu Natal in South Africa running a program on Creation Evangelism. It was then that I realized that many evolutionists had difficulties believing that all races stem from two created humans – Adam and Eve. Interestingly Towns in his book [page 28] addresses this issue in a more practical and rationale manner by making reference to selective genetic dominance.Genesis 10 makes mention of the generations of Noah by linguistic groupings: Saphead was Indo-Aryan, Ham was African, and Seth was Semitic Genesis 12-50 tells he story of Abraham and his family journey of faith. Towns brings out an issue of separation in the life of Abraham. He speaks of the tent and the altar. He shows that the altars of Canniest or Babylonians were made of brick while those of Abram were made of stone.

[peg 34]. Towns say that the tent and altar were symbols of separation in the life of Abram. It is imperative that a believer must be separated from the world unto the Lord.

Page] Both the tent and the altar are needed as a key to fulfillment and a deeper walk with the Lord. He further reviews that Abram built an altar and pitched a tent after is troubles in Egypt and it marked a renewal of Abraham’s spiritual life [peg 40]. Towns hints that “In Egypt, the man of faith was the man of failure” referring to Abraham’s greater independence from God. It is interesting that he further brings the reader back to a realization that one needs to always fall forward and not stay in their moments of failure and inadequacy.Towns say; But such a lapse in faith need not be permanent nor does it necessarily prevent one from maturing his faith into “strong faith. ” Like Abram, when we lapse in faith, we must return to the point of our departure from God if we desire once gain to enjoy the joy of communion we once knew. Abram is today remembered as the man faith in part because he returned “to the place where his tent had been at the beginning” (13:3). The story of Sari and Haggard and the giving of a servant for a possible heir make so much sense and meaning as it is close to some of the widely practiced customs in my culture.

Having been faced with this situation myself, and being from a culture as of Abraham, understand first hand that the desire for an heir could have been Abraham’s intent of, and motivation for caring for his nephew Lot. Lot would become an adopted heir of sorts. Despite the repeated remises by God that Abram would be the father of a nation, his wife Sari was barren. Barrenness in the East is considered among the greatest tragedies which might befall a family. Children were considered the heritage of the Lord and a sure sign of the blessing of God (1 Sam. :20-21).

Even in the New Testament, Elizabeth spoke of the Lord taking “away my reproach among men,” when she realized she was bearing a child (Luke 1:25). Towns further shows that one has to wait on the promises of God, for they shall surely come to pass. Many times we try to do things that suit our situations and “help” God fulfill His promises.. Under the legal code of Hamburg, a maid who had been elevated to the status of slave-wife could be returned to her status as maid, but not expelled from the household.

Abram was apparently observing this custom when he returned Hager to Sari’s control…..

‘ [peg 54] It can further be noted that there is no amount of substitute that would equate the original! Clearly we see here again that humans have a tendency of shifting blame. It was Sari who in the first place coined a strategy for her husband to get Haggard to wife so she may give her a child. It is said that Haggard lost respect of her mistress seeing she felt more period in that she conceived while Sari could not. Sari then blamed her husband for taking a second wife!Typical of humanity but also a proof that a spouse cannot be shared. The sacrifice of Isaac typifies the sacrifice of Christ; and Towns mentions many ways in which the sacrifice of Isaac is similar to that of Jesus Christ. It is this Isaac who later got married to Rebecca, a girl from the house of a materialistic Lab.

Her story is fascinating and intriguing at the same time but shows a great wealth of morals and characteristics to look for in picking a bride! Genesis 24 contains a beautiful “parable”, in whichAbraham typifies God the father; Isaac typifies Jesus the Son; Rebecca typifies the Bride of Christ, the Church; and the nameless servant [who we later know as Likelier] typifies the Holy Spirit. The following are nine ways in which the servant depicts the Holy Spirit in his relationships to the Church: Gene. 24:2, 10: The servant ruled over all of Abraham’s possessions. Gene. 24: 2, 3: He was responsible for choosing the bride. Gene. 24:1 0: He came with ten gift-bearing camels [a symbol of the fruit and gifts of the spirit]. Gene.

24:13-21 : Rebecca response to the servant determined her life’s destiny. Gene. :25, 31: Rebecca was set apart by the gifts she accepted from the servant. Gene. 24:25, 31: Rebecca and her family provided a dwelling place for the servant and his camels. Gene. 24:58, 59: The servant became Rebecca guide to take her to the bridegroom.

The servant was Rebecca only source of information about both Isaac and Abraham. The servant’s job was finished when he delivered Rebecca to Isaac. He asked nothing for himself. It is important to note that even though very little is said about Rebecca, her barrenness was mentioned so that the birth of her twins would be a milestone and denote significance.

Though viewed by society as enmeshment for sin; God used barrenness on at least 6 occasions: Sari/ Sarah and the birth of Isaac (peg 32, 53-56); harem of Abominable to give back Sari (peg 38); Rebecca and the birth of Jacob and Seas (peg 89); Rachel and the birth of Joseph (peg 96); Gammon’s mother (peg 1 63); and Hannah and the birth of Samuel (peg 173). In each reference God sealed up the mothers womb until God Was ready for a child to be born. Beginning to deal with Exodus, Dry. Towns brings a great analysis of the racial groups of Egypt in about 1675-1570 B.

C pointing that the Hooky’s ruled Egypt around that time; and they looked more like the Hebrews. He opens the chapter by stating as below: “During the years Israel sojourned in Egypt, the family of seventy grew into a nation of thousands. While Joseph and his memory remained alive, the nation was the beneficiary of special political and economic benefits. But after the death of Joseph, the memory of what he had done for Egypt began to fade even as a new dynasty arose in Egypt”. Exodus is about the deliverance of the Israelites. Exodus means departure.

It tells the story of Moses leading the Israelites out of Egypt and to the promise land.The story of Exodus in the Old Testament is equivalent to the cross in the New Testament. The book also deals with Gods covenant with his people. The Israelite Exodus from Egypt, recounted in the Bible, tells of the oppression of the Israelites as slaves in Egypt, their flight from the country led by Moses and their journey through the wilderness before eventually settling in the “Promised Land”.

Strictly speaking, there has never been any clear evidence discovered in Egypt, or elsewhere, to support the Israelite Exodus from Egypt, though there is no small amount of conjecture and theories.In fact, today it is fashionable, among Speleologists, archaeologists and even some Jewish scholars to doubt he whole biblical story. At the same time, a complete rejection of this account may very well be undeserved, though it is very likely that the details of the incident may be lacking in historical footing. Attempts to date the Exodus are problematic because the Bible itself provides us with two conflicting clues as to when the event took place. Kings 6:1 clearly dates the Exodus to 480 years before the founding of Jerusalem temple by King Solomon.This would put the date of the Exodus at around 1450 BC However, in Exodus 1, we are told that the Pharaoh put the enslaved Hebrews to ark on two “store-cities” called Photo and Renames, There is no agreement on the location of Photo among scholars, but Renames is usually agreed upon to be a Hebrew rendering of the Egyptian royal name Rampages, and as a place name it is thought to be Egyptian Prioresses, the extensive Delta capital built by Rampages II. If so, then the Hebrews cannot have left Egypt before the 1 HTH Century BC.

Various explanations have been provided for this discrepancy. For example, the 480 years given in Kings is symbolic, or derived from adding together shorter periods that actually overlapped, such as those contained in the Book of Judges. It is also very possible that there was already a city in the Delta that Rampages II built upon to make Prioresses, and the Hebrews worked on this earlier city. The rendering of Renames could have therefore been a later update of the original city’s name.Of course, it is also possible that the details of the account vary from the Biblical story, and that there was actually more than one Exodus.

For biblical scholars, there are other issues such as how subsequent events, such as Joshua conquest Of Canniest cities, might fit into the archaeological history of Palestine. The third book of the Pentateuch is Leviticus. It contains many of the Laws. Leviticus is named after the sons of Levi and is devoted to preserving Israel’s holy moral character as an aid to worship and enjoyment of the Lord and his blessings.Numbers contains more of the Laws and begins and ends with a census.

Finally, Deuteron is the farewell speeches of Moses. Deuteron means second law. Moses addresses Gods people, prepares them for the Promised Land and the blessing of their God. Ruth is one of the most famous women of the Bible – which is strange when you realize she was not an Israelite at all, but a Amoebae woman, a foreigner, an outsider, from a entry that was one of Israel’s traditional enemies.

Left alone when her husband died, she had one great asset: a shrewd old Jewish mother-in-law who loved her, and whom she loved. They stuck together through thick and thin – mostly thin at first, but things got better when Ruth met Boas, a rich man who seemed to have fallen in love with her at first sight. On the story of Ruth, Towns tells the story of the “romance of redemption – Ruth 1:1-4:22” painted in the kinsman redeemer, Boas, showing us what faith can accomplish in the life of every believer when we are redeemed by Christ (peg 152-153).

The opening expression of the book of Ruth is said to have been used some five times in the bible; and that each time it is used always denotes impending trouble, followed by internal disorders and outward oppressions. The Book of Ruth is more than a history of a family in Bethlehem. It is a love story of how a poor but virtuous widow finds her rest and fulfillment through a marriage to one Of the wealthiest and most honorable men of the city. But it is also more than a love story. It is an account of faith in which a number of prayers are offered to God and without exception answered to the benefit of the one praying.It is the story of how a Amoebae girl, who was an alien from the commonwealth of Israel and by law under the curse of Mob, found redemption in the village of Bethlehem and was accepted into the society of the people of God. And in all this, it is a picture of every believer’s relationship to God. It is the romance of redemption, a picture of what faith can and does accomplish in the life of every believer.

Ruth and Boas were married, and she had a son, Bed. Eventually, Ruth would be the great-grandmother of King David.The marriage of Ruth and Boas created a family with a good chance of success, because Naomi was shrewd, courageous and persevering – Ruth was intelligent, strong, loyal and level-headed – Boas was a good manager of people, and not afraid to get his hands dirty. Nearly half of the book [A Journey through the Old Testament] focuses on the kings of Israel and Judas. It highlights their times of revival, renewal, downfall and eventual captivity.

It is interesting though to note that very little spiritual insight and or perspectives are written about these kings.Even though Towns highlighted that he was not writing a book On the full history of Israel, I feel he could have one better covering the many spiritual insights available especially towards the end of the kingdom. Right before each nation went into captivity; there were many prophets who spoke against the worship of idols.

I however see that Towns focused more on political powers in his book and less on the spiritual perspectives and influences such as Joel who called the nation into a holy fast before the Lord.Cephalic searched throughout Jerusalem with lamps for the righteous; and we see Amos standing at the temple at Bethel proclaiming the Word of the Lord and destruction of Israel. In the return to vapidity, Towns recounts and tells the story of the five leaders – Their Responsibility for the Return of the Jews (Ezra; Haggis; Escherichia).

As in the name, “Escherichia” which means “the Lord remembers,” we see that the Lord remembered Israel and brought them back home from captivity in Babylon.The theme of the return shows: ; God’s restoration of Israel. ; God’s promise of the Messiah Jeremiah had warned the people that God would send them into Captivity, but he had also promised them they would only be in Captivity seventy years Egger. 25:11-12).

As that seventy-year period came to a close, many of the Jews ad become so comfortable in their new homeland they had no desire to return. Still, God would honor His Word. Among the leaders of the Gentiles, God raised up five servants to lead His people back to the land to rebuild the temple.The five leaders were (1) Agreeable, who led the captives back to the land and was appointed governor; (2) Joshua, the high priest, who came with Agreeable and set up the altar and reinstated the sacrifices; (3) Cyrus, king of Persia, who signed a decree sending the Jews to their land; (4) Haggis, the prophet whose preaching motivated the completion of the construction f the temple; and (5) Escherichia, the prophet who assisted in building the temple but also predicted the coming of the Messiah who would inhabit the land and temple [peg 271 J.Towns did a great job incorporating the stories of Daniel and Esther in the Babylonian captivity while dealing with Anemia who returned from captivity. It goes without mention that Towns’ closing text [peg 284] very well mentions the silent 400 years during which the Jews built synagogues everywhere to hear the Old Testament Scriptures read to them. During those years when there were no prophets, the vital faith of Israel came increasingly institutionalized.

Conclusion and Summary: Elmer Towns points out his objective in writing his book, “Journey Through The Old Testament” in his opening introduction.He puts it thusly, “It is a study of those people who have influenced the events of the Old Testament” . 1 His thesis in one’s own words could be put as it being a brief study of some of the key influential history makers of the Old Testament. From Lucifer to Malachite, Elmer Towns is unabashed in pointing out the good and bad instances, as far as it relates to the topic at hand, in the lives of the Old Testament characters. Take his evaluation of Abram for instance. “When God calls, faith responds in complete obedience.

Abraham’s initial hesitancy to obey the call of God may have been in part due to family loyalties which were at that time stronger than his loyalty to God”. 2 He points out the disobedience of Abram to express his faith in God by complete obedience. Elmer Towns does not try to gloss over or hide the faults of the Old Testament people.