MUS369 Digital Recording & ProductionJAMIE WILSON_369_Task1.1 RECORDING PLANName: JAMIE WILSONDate: Friday 15th December 2017 – START AT 10.00AM – PROMPT!!!At: ROSS RECORDING STUDIOSHarrow WealdHarrowwww.rossrecords.co.ukPurpose & Intention:To write and record three new tracks based on the previous jam we had a week ago. Also refining a setlist and trying different things, writing new songs or song parts, and at the end, if there is time more jamming.Recording Team Jamie Wilson – Producer and keyboardKofi Wilson – Bass and acoustic guitar, and keyboardJamal Ross – Vocals, flute, keyboardMusician Team / InstrumentationInstrumentPersonNotes (space to write extra notes)DrumsKofi / JamieBass guitarKofiAcoustic guitarKofiKeyboardJamie / Kofi / JamalVocalsJamalFluteJamalEquipment ListSoftware : Logic . MACBOOK inc charger and link cablesMic’s : sEX1R (ribbon), NT2A, SM57, sE4, D112, D40 and C430 plus cables/jacksDrums, drum sticksPedalsBass Guitar and jacksAcoustic GuitarFluteAmplifiers (headphone amp with multiple outputs)Direct Injection Unit (DIU)USB Audio interface with an XLR connector lead and DAW software XLR connectorsOther – duct tape, electrical tape, guitar tuning kit, guitar picks, headphones (one for everyone)Cables and spare cables, usb, blank cds Refreshments!TimeActivityEquipmentNotes9.00amMeet & greet. Kofi to drive. Jamie to help carry equipment. Pick up Jamal before driving to studio.Jamie to give everyone a copy of the recording plan and discuss any additions the others want.Van/carInstruments and equipment mentioned above.Three copies of recording plan – pens/pencils to write notes10-10.30amArrive before session starts at 10.00. Get in earlier if possible but at least be ready.Set up equipment – drums, mics, cables, etcSet up good quality headphone amp with multiple outputs in the control room10.30-10.45amMic positioning check and feedback.Set mics to basic levelsWork together to get correct soundMicsDrums, pedalsKeyboardsGuitarsAmpsCablesOngoing adjustment of sound and feedback. Jamie in control room10.45-11.30amRecord drumsDrums, Pedals, Drum sticks Dynamic and condenser mics D40 and C43011.30-11.45amPack away drums, D40 and C43011.45-12Set up bass guitar & mic -Set up Direct Injection Unit (DIU)Bass guitar, amp, cablesMic D112 Guitar picksDIUGuitar jacks12-12.30Record bass guitar (DI)12.30-12.45pmPack away bass guitar & D11212.45-1pmSet up acoustic guitar & small diaphragm condenser micAcoustic guitarGuitar picksMic sE41-1.30pmRecord acoustic guitar (DI)1.30-1.45pmPack away acoustic guitar & sE41.45-1.50pmLine check1.50-2pmSet up fluteFlute, sEX1R – ribbon mic2.00-2.30pmRecord flute2.30-2.35pmPack away flute and ribbon mic2.35-2.50pmSet up vocals & condenser micSet up keyboardNT2A micKeyboard and cables2.50-3.45pmRecord vocals and keyboards (DI)SM573.45-until end of session All listen to a selection of recordings in the control room. Discuss any missing and post-production strategies going forward. Playback the recordings creating a rough mix. Create an export of the rough mix if required 4.00pmFinish off and pack awayBreakdown mics and cables making sure cables correctly coiled. Make any final arrangements with studio, tidy up and make sure all equipment removed from studio. Make sure at least 2 backup of studio recording madeDirect Injection (DI)Direct Injection (or direct input) (“DI”) is when you connect an instrument directly into a console and this results in a pure and vivid sound with plenty of presence. This can be done at the same time as recording with an amplifier and a microphone in a studio to give more options when mixing.Tracks can be mixed together to give a combination of tones. The DI minimizes noise and distortion in the performance and reduces ground hum.(Ref: http://www.practical-music-production.com/di-box.html)If you use direct injection you can re-amp at a later stage (i.e. you can send the track from the computer into the amplifier and re-record with a mic)(ref: http://www.practical-music-production.com/di-box.html)In this session I propose to DI the bass guitar and acoustic guitar so that I get a clean sound and so I can re-record if I need to later.MicrophonesMicrophone PlacementUse the 3-to-1 rule when you’re recording with more than one microphone.The 3-to-1 RuleFor every unit of distance between the first mic and the sound source, the second mic should be three times that distance from the first mic.EG, If the first mic position is 1 inch from the source, then the next mic position should be 3 inches away from the 1st mic.DrumsChoice of Microphone: D40 – Professional Dynamic Microphone and C430 (condenser) for cymbal and overhead miking I choose this because the D40 is a good quality professional instrumental microphone. It has a Varimotion diaphragm and uses a unique laminated material to damp high resonance peaks, creating great audio performance. The transducer is protected by a strong wire mesh cap and can take extremely high sound pressure levels easily. It’s a highly versatile tool for drums, percussion, wind instruments and guitar amps.Dynamic (D40)This is often used on the snare, bass drum and sometimes on the toms. A dynamic mic functions just like a speaker, only in reverse, with the movement of the diaphragm in turn moving a coil in relation to a magnet, creating an electrical signal.This mic is good for picking up mid-range and is sturdy enough to take the occasional miss-hit. Most dynamic mics use a cardioid pattern, which means they reject sounds coming from behind them while also boosting bottom-end when placed close to the subject. Condenser (C430)A condenser mic needs power sent to it from the desk or pre-amp. This power supplies a small amplifier inside the mic that increases the signal picked up by the movement of a diaphragm, this time a capacitor. Condenser mics also tend to be more sensitive than dynamic mics because of the low mass of their moving parts but usually have built-in pad switches (10 and 20 decibel increments) to enable them to handle the levels drummers are capable of delivering.Bass drum miked inside: miking the bass drum from the inside has the advantage of isolation, weight and definitionA problem often encountered when miking the bass drum comes if the drum is fitted with a full front head. In this case, placing a mic in front of the drum will work, but it can lack the definition and isolation of placing a mic inside the drumOptions:- Bass drum miked outside: using two out-of-phase mics in front of the bass drum will capture the ambient sound of the front headFirstly, miking the batter side of the drum will have more definition, while adding a second mic in front of the drum ‘out of phase’ will capture the atmospheric sound of the front head. However, the pay off for having the mic outside of the drum is more bleed from the rest of the kit and less attack than if it were placed inside.X/Y overhead miking: two mics placed directly above the kit captures the stereo image with no phasing problemsTwo main options are X/Y (or coincident) pair or a spaced pair. The X/Y configuration involves placing the two overheads directly above the kit with their capsules next to each other. This is a good way of capturing a stereo image of the kit with no phasing problems, as the sound of the kit reaches both mics simultaneously.Spaced pair overhead miking: spreading the overhead mics further apart captures a wider stereo image of the kitThe snare would be miked from the top, three fingers away and at the edge of the drum and pointing at the centre. The three-finger rule can help keep the mic away from unwanted harmonics from the edge of the head and hoop, while aiming it at the center helps capture the stick sound at its point of impact.Moving the mic away from this point will introduce more ‘air’ or ambience into the sound and moving it closer, if using a dynamic mic, will introduce low-end as a result of what’s called the ‘proximity effect’. This can be useful to a point, however if you get too close, the proximity effect will render sound unnatural or unusable.Tom miking: you can get a more defined tom sound by bringing the mics lowerHi-hat miking: hi-hats should be miked using a small condenser mic placed 2″-3″ awaySnare miking position: A second mic below the snare will capture the sizzle of snare wiresPut up room mics if its a good large sounding room.If the room is small a single ambient or room mic set a few feet away from the kit can also be used to create artificial ambience using reverb.One additional mic that can make an enormous difference to the drum’s sound is a sub mic for the bass drum.(ref: http://www.musicradar.com/tuition/drums/13-correct-ways-to-mic-up-a-drum-kit-209119)Bass Guitar (electric)Because of the limited frequency response of guitar amps, dynamic microphones are usually used when recording electric guitar. The high volume levels of amps are also better suited to dynamics.The best polar pattern to use would be cardioid (or super/hypercardioid), with omnidirectional being the next best choice. If we record guitar through the amp with lots of other instruments in the same room, use a cardioid to minimize the spill.Choice of Microphone: D112 – Professional Dynamic bass drum microphoneI would choose this because the D112 is a professional dynamic bass drum microphone which has an integrated flexible mount. It has a reputation of being one of the best bass drum microphones ever made for its high SPL capacity, punchy EQ and bulletproof construction. It can handle more than 160 db spl without distortion. It has a large diaphragm which has a very low resonance frequency that delivers a solid and powerful response below 100 Hz. It doesn’t require an additional EQ. It has an integrated hum-compensation coil that keeps noise to a minimum. It’s a good choice for miking electric bass cabinets and trombones.I would plug the bass into the instrument (jack) input of the DI box and take a feed from the box into the input of the amp. I would use the XLR output on the DI box to connect to the mixer or interface. Once the bass cabinet has been suitably mic’ed I will have two channels of bass. Then I would play both channels together and send the DI signal to a digital delay. Then dial in the delay (around 2ms) until the bass sound snaps into focus. I would be looking for a continuously variable delay so that I can hear precisely when the sound becomes solid and punchy. Or I might move the DI signal within your digital recorder so that the waveforms match and are not out of phase.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MMQscyATGMQThe closer a mic is, the brighter and more intimate the recording will be. This brightness will also help the recording to cut through a mix better when compared to placing it further back, where the sound would be warmer but less sharp.We can also change the tone by changing the direction of the mic. The sound will be brighter if the mic points towards the center of the amp’s speaker, becoming less bright the more you point it towards the edge of the speaker’s cone.(ref: http://www.practical-music-production.com/recording-electric-guitar.html)When recording the guitar – consider lateral or rotational placement (see diagrams below)(ref: http://www.harmonycentral.com/forum/forum/guitar/acapella-28/1580806-/page2)Acoustic GuitarChoice of microphone: SE4 (condenser)I would choose the SE4 because I think it’s very well suited to recording acoustic guitar (particularly using the omni capsule with an acoustic screen behind). The sE4 mic is a remodelled sE3, designed to sound and perform exactly the same, and with very similar styling, but with one key new feature. The chassis has been re-engineered to accept 2 additional interchangeable capsules, a Hypercardioid and an Omni.I would place the microphone as follows depending on the particular sound required at that time.(ref: https://imgur.com/gallery/VUfDY)https://www.soundonsound.com/techniques/recording-acoustic-guitarKeyboards I would choose the SM57 – Cardioid Dynamic Instrument MicrophoneThe SM57 is a cardioid dynamic instrument microphone which offers a clean reproduction of amplified and acoustic instruments. It has contoured frequency response for rich vocal pickup, background noise reduction and a pneumatic shock mount system. It is extremely durable under heavy use and its frequency response is 40 to 15,000 Hz. This can also be used with other instruments and is a good all round dynamic microphone to use.I would aim the microphone at the speaker connected to the keyboard. Vocals I would use a NT2A – Condenser Microphone to record the vocals(ref: http://www.rode.com/microphones/nt2-a)The NT2A is a professional large capsule studio microphone incorporating three-position pick-up patterns, pad and high pass filter switches located on the mic body. It has a SM6 shock mount, dust cover and mic cable.http://www.rode.com/microphones/nt2-ahttps://vimeo.com/tag:rode+nt2-aThe shock mount should be position to the comfortable height of the vocalist.FluteChoice of microphone: RibbonSE Electronics sE X1R Ribbon MicrophoneI would use a ribbon microphone for this instrument. Although if i was recording jazz flute recording, I would consider using a condenser microphone. A condenser would capture more of the flute’s many overtones, resulting in a bright sound. A dynamic mic gives a less bright and detailed flute sound. This sound may be more suited to a rock or R&B band. For a darker, fuller and natural flute sound, I would use a ribbon microphone . The higher notes have a bit less bite and the lower range is fuller sounding. The ribbon also takes eq especially well. I would position the microphone as follows:Also required:XLR Connector (referred to as “mic cables)(ref: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XLR_connector and http://en.wikiaudio.org/XLR_connector and http://www.notesandvolts.com/2011/08/what-heck-is-xlr-connector.html)The XLR connector is a electrical connector usually used on professional audio, video, and stage lighting equipment. The connectors are circular in design and have between 3 and 7 pins. They are most commonly associated with balanced audio interconnection. Three pin XLR are the most common connectors used. The XLR5 (5 pin) can be used for dual-element microphones. Some examples of application areas for XLR connectors are sound mixers, microphones, amplifiers and a mastering deck.When two balanced devices are connected, the XLR cable delivers a positive audio signal, a negative audio signal and a ground signal. When the positive and negative signals reach the balanced device at the end of the chain, one of the two audio signals is inverted and then the two audio signals are identical in every way.A balanced audio cable consists of a Positive Signal (Hot), a Negative Signal (Cold) and Ground. In the XLR cable, pin one is Ground, pin two is Positive and pin three is Negative (see diagram)¼” jack (the quarter inch jack)(ref: https://www.dawsons.co.uk/blog/a-guide-to-types-of-cable-connector)This is a common connection found on musical equipment known as the quarter inch jack. It is a type of connection that is used on electric guitars and guitar amps. The plug is always a ¼” or 6.3mm jack with a single black hoop called an insulating ring towards its tip. It is used for for connection to amps, guitar heads and cabinets. It is also known as: Phone-Jack, 6.3mm jack, guitar jack, jack plug and jack.