Modern communication technologies Essay


This treatment paper is divided into seven parts. Firstly debut briefly explains the alterations in the modern-day universe and what they are influenced with. Second portion explains the four biggest challenges of the current economic environment – engineering, globalisation, diverseness and aging population. Then the 3rd and 4th parts are short overviews of the most of import mileposts of human resource ( HR ) and organisational development ( OD ) . Fifth and 6th parts discover the functions of OD and HR in talent direction ( TM ) and highlight the specific undertakings of each. And eventually the decision summarizes the content of this article.

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We live in a universe of alteration. Modern communicating engineerings ( particularly cyberspace ) are supplying to about everyone the chance to happen the sort of information they are looking for. It is the information, and the easiness of acquiring it which makes everything faster. Looking for some information twenty old ages ago, one would hold to physically see a library, manually hunt within all books and paperss trusting to happen what they were looking for. Today with merely basic computing machine accomplishments we could acquire most of information needed with merely a few chinks on the laptop keyboard or even nomadic phone.

It is the velocity of information transportation which contributes most to the current province of alteration which goes manus in manus with a extremely competitory environment. It is going progressively difficult for organisations to derive competitory advantage by merely offering new merchandises or services, as their challengers could now easy copy it. As a consequence borders are diminishing and organisations struggle. Directors already understand that they have to look for other options and some of them are concentrating on diminishing costs by traveling production in developing states. But it can non last everlastingly – as others join this tendency, the existent consequence will decrease over clip.

In add-on, a globally aging population brings yet another challenge – skilled work force is going more and more cherished. For organisations these yearss it is a must to rethink their employee schemes in order to derive competitory advantage – it is clip for talent direction ( TM ) .

The intent of this article is to explicate the demand for TM, and follow the historic connexions and the functions of human resource ( HR ) and organisational development ( OD ) in birth of TM.

Challenges of current economic system environment

The velocity of alteration in the modern-day economic system is speed uping every bit ne’er earlier. There are countless new, advanced engineerings emerging every twenty-four hours, coercing organisations to continuously better in order to retain competitory advantage…

Merchandises that used to hold a lifecycle of five old ages might now merely be feasible for a few months. New thoughts, merchandises, or benchmark concern processes that in the yesteryear could be protected for decennaries, are now copied, stolen, and perchance even rendered disused within hebdomads ( Sullivan 2009 ) .

And there are other, arguably even more ambitious alterations coming. First of all it is the aging population. For illustration the average age of Australians has increased by 5.1 old ages over the last two decennaries and over the following several decennaries population ripening is expected to hold great effects on many countries of the society including skilled labor ( ABS 2009 ) . But it is non merely the diminishing Numberss of skilled work force – the replacing of ‘baby boomers ‘ by Generation Y employees ( GYEs ) ( by 2020 42 % of Australian work force is expected to be GYEs ) ( Buik 2008, 9-11 ) besides means displacement in employees ‘ set values and outlooks. For illustration 63 % of GYEs stay less than two old ages with an employer, 90 % of GYEs would remain longer with an employer, given the opportunity of proper preparation and development, 81 % of GYEs expect to be promoted in two old ages and eventually 97 % of GYEs value a leading manner that involves authorization, audience, and partnering and will go forth if they do n’t acquire it ( Vaiman & A ; Vance 2008, 67 ; Delong 2004, 12-16 ) .

New engineerings and deficit in skilled employees combined with impacts of globalization ( unfastened markets = bigger competition ) and increasing diverseness of work force are the biggest four challenges of modern-day economic system. It was besides new engineerings that have impacted largely the development of HR during past 20 old ages.

Insistent and transactional procedures ( paysheets, benefits, clip and attending disposal etc. ) were during that period largely automated giving HR the opportunity to develop new, more strategic subject – Endowment Management ( Schweyer, Newman and DeVries 2009, 15 – 27 ) . The OD on the other manus helps to incorporate the TM doctrine deep into organisation civilization. It is astonishing how both OD and HR ( if managed good ) understand and complement each other. In order to better understand this alone synergism, we shall see their historical backgrounds.

History of HR

Harmonizing to ( Bratton and Gold 2001, 6 ) HR has merged from different beginnings including struggle direction, increasing specialisation of labor every bit good as from influence of scientific discipline on pull offing organisations.

During the Industrial Revolution in Britain ill educated employees were ‘motivated ‘ by rigorous disciplinary actions and mulcts. It was in the 1840s under the force per unit area of political relations and the broader public, when some employers realised that there might be other motivational factors. But it was merely about 1890s when companies like Cadbury or Rowntree in Britain introduced a new occupation place called ‘industrial public assistance for workers ‘ , which over clip transformed into the modern forces specializers.

Interestingly adequate World War I ( 1914-1918 ) besides brought some of import alterations in HR. Since work forces were needed in the front line it was the first clip when adult females had to fall in the industry. By the terminal of World War I, there were many adult females supervisors who brought the ‘caring ‘ factor in the industry. It was besides during this period, when the premium fillip system came to visible radiation ( Bratton & A ; Gold 2001, 6-7 ) .

At the same clip Frederick Taylor proposed ‘Scientific direction ‘ . Taylor among others noted the consequence the inducement of increased rewards had on the productiveness, and that directors should be after and command, and workers should work towards given instructions. Despite his timeless foundations, critics blamed him that his methods made the workplace ‘dull ‘ and the workers operate like machines.

Another supporter of Scientific direction at that clip was Henry Gantt, known for his control system composed of flow charts, used soon in flow direction. He is besides the laminitis of gain-sharing or profit-sharing constructs besides used in today ‘s wages systems ( Clark & A ; Seward 2000, 20-22 ) .

Following two theories which are still of great importance in HR and OD today – Administrative Management and particularly Behavioural Management – besides evolved in analogue with scientific direction. Henri Fayol and Max Weber are the biggest names of the Administrative epoch. The first developed 14 rules of direction including wage, authorization or integrity of way. He believed that any individual could be taught rules either in school or in the workplace. The ulterior one developed theories about different constructions of authorization, which are still in topographic point in many authoritiess and organisations today.

Particular attending should be paid to the behavioral direction, as it is the primary beginning of today ‘s OD, HR and accordingly TM theories. Hugo Munsterberg, the laminitis of industrial psychological science believed that through a better alliance of single abilities the demands of the workplace efficiency could be increased. His theories laid the land for today ‘s public presentation assessments and choice of new employees.

Mary Parker Follett in the other manus suggested that single potency could merely be released through group interaction and kineticss. She is besides the laminitis of surveies in leading and power.

Frederick Herzberg came up with two-factor theory of employee motive.

Douglas McGregor ‘s theory X, Y premises shows that employees will execute better, provided they are treated as responsible and valued persons. His theories form the base to the survey of motive.

Clayton Alderfer has modified Maslow ‘s motivational theory into more flexible ERG theory, which emphasises that public presentation restraints outside the control of the person and besides the deficiency of competency or low intrinsic work motive may hold negative effects on employee ‘s morale ( Wood & A ; Zeffane & A ; Fromholtz & A ; Fitzgerald 2006, 84-85 ; Clark & A ; Seward 2000, 22-30 ) .

The system attack is another of import theory which started to look in the mid-1960s suggested that an administration could be viewed as a system of interdependent constituents which produces a complete unit. The usage of this system became one of the current tendencies in OD ( Brown & A ; Harvey 2006, 40-44 ; Clark & A ; Seward 2000, 31 ) .

Even though many of the above systems are already aged, they still provide strong anchor for development of modern patterns in today ‘s HR and OD.

By definition HRM is:

Administrative activities associated with human resources planning, enlisting, choice, orientation, preparation, assessment, motive, wage, etc. HRM aims at developing people through work ( 2010 ) .

History of OD

“ OD is the application of behavioral scientific discipline, action research and systems theory to human systems, to increase the internal and external effectivity of the organisation, particularly in pull offing alteration, utilizing participative procedures that involve all those affected ( Rothwell and Sullivan 2005, 103 ) . ”

The history of some signifier of organisational development could be viewed to travel as far back as the beginning of human sort itself. However the OD as we know it today started to take form at the really beginning of the twentieth century. It was Sigmund Freud, who believed that there were interior ‘powers ‘ driving every human being.

B.F. Skinner is the male parent of today ‘s public presentation direction. He applied in theory Pavlov ‘s salivating Canis familiariss on worlds and concluded that what gets rewarded gets repeated. Celebrated Abraham Maslow ‘s motivational theory is still in usage, nevertheless there already are some more flexible alterations to his work including the already mentioned ERG theory, or more late appreciative enquiry.

Many organisations have besides adapted Eric Berne ‘s transactional analysis ( TA ) in order to better their communicating and interpersonal accomplishments. TA can assist people better understand their behavior in different state of affairss ( Brown & A ; Harvey 2006, 246 ; Wood et Al. 2006, 84 ; Rothwell and Sullivan 2005, 81-83 ) .

Rensis Likert found that study research ( today it could be done efficaciously via synergistic web sites ) consequences were non frequently used efficaciously. He suggested that top-down feedback scheme was necessary in order to convey the desirable result in which all groups of the organisation would be actively involved ( Rothwell and Sullivan 2005, 30-31 ) .

However those above named came up with many of import theories none of them influenced the OD as we know it today more straight than the undermentioned 1s:

Kurt Lewin came up with two cardinal theories. First force field analysis suggests that there are two forces impacting workers public presentation – restraining forces and driving forces. Improved public presentation could be achieved by either beef uping a impulsive force or weakening the later. And secondly T-group theory, which was chiefly invented in order to happen the roots of inter-ethnic bias in US communities. These groups were designed to sensitise the forces of group kineticss like determination devising and struggle declaration ( Rothwell and Sullivan 2005, 87-88 ) .

Wilfred Bion is the writer of Tavistock Method – he was appointed to handle traumatized soldiers in World War II. Bion brought them into groups and while he worked with one of them at a clip, the others spontaneously began to portion their ain experiences. He realised that while they were assisting each other, at the same clip they were larning from each other. This foundation was of import in formation of semi-autonomous work squads.

It is besides deserving adverting that Frederick Herzberg ( see old chapter ) was using Bion ‘s penetrations to actuating employees ( Rothwell and Sullivan 2005, 89-91 ) .

Douglas McGregor and Frederick Taylor were already mentioned in the old chapter.

When we try and compare OD and HR history we can easy see the analogue between both particularly in behavioral direction theories, although their functions in formation of TM are rather different though.

Role of HR in Talent direction

Talent direction, whether to be understood as an extension or replacement of HR, is switching the function of HR from being merely a concern ‘ tool to the place of strategic spouse. That is largely because directors start to understand increasing importance of human resources as a competitory advantage and pass more clip and energy on talent direction enterprises ( Cheese, Thomas and Craig 2008, 233 ) . HR should be responsible for put to deathing TM schemes, oversing TM procedure and supplying counsel and new thoughts about TM plans. HR ‘s transmutation into more strategic TM besides forces its leaders to deeper apprehension of organisational fiscal aims or return on investing analysis so they could efficaciously put to death direction ‘s scheme ( Schweyer, Newman and Peter DeVries 2009, 29-32 ) .

Role of OD in Talent direction

Ideally for TM to be successful, it has to be profoundly integrated in all sectors of the organisation. First of all though, it has to be to the full supported by top direction so it could be farther extended into other sectors of organisation ( sections, squads, units etc ) . The function of OD lies in altering the current position of the organisation into a more effectual one utilizing behavioral scientific disciplines, at the same clip underscoring the importance of persons, supplying support to them and continually altering in order to remain effectual and healthy ( Rothwell and Sullivan 2005, 19 ) . OD adopted and developed many theories particularly from behaviour direction and it besides provides TM with many utile tools for bettering the public presentation of workers, recruiting, mentoring, sequence planning, endowment development, public presentation direction and keeping.


This paper was written as reaction on the current economical clime. It highlighted the biggest challenges which today ‘s administrations are confronting – with particular importance being given to new engineerings and the aging population – explicating how these affect organisations now and in the hereafter. Further identified is Talent Management as a possible solution when confronting these challenges and more so to detecting the functions of Organisational Development and Human Resource in Talent Management in the historic, present and future contexts.

Comparing the beginnings of Organisational Development and Human Resource showed that both have surprisingly many common traits particularly in behavioral direction, giving Talent Management the chance to construct on those similarities and go a strategic spouse for organisations in future. Talent Management should utilize the strengths of Human Resource and the doctrine of changeless alteration of Organisational Development supported by new engineerings in order to assist organisations to make a civilization of alteration, where the cognition is extremely nurtured, giving the organisations competitory advantage of dateless alteration planning.

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