Management 87500 Organizational Behavior Assignment 2Teri R.
MotenCalSouthern UniversityAbstractThe basis of this project is to review the concepts of Organizational Behavior, Managing Diversity, and Organizational Culture. The material used came from the textbook “Organizational Behavior” Tenth Edition by Robert Kreitner and multiple online articles. Organizational Behavior and the value of ethical conduct will be described as well as the most effective methods to manage diversity and socialize an organization. The main points of each chapter, as I have interpreted, will be outlined.
The essay will conclude with my overall broad-based understanding of the course concept and how those ideas apply to the long-term success of an organization. The findings will be useful to help me expand my knowledge of the underlying foundational principles of Organizational Behavior so that I will be able to identify areas of opportunity in which I can help businesses and companies better manage diversity and develop the positive organizational culture that can increase employee potential and bottom-line profits.Keywords: Organizational Behavior, Diversity, Organizational Culture, SocializationManagement 87500 Organizational Behavior Assignment 2Organizational Behavior Assignment 2Chapter 1: Organizational BehaviorOrganizational behavior is an interdisciplinary field that encompasses human behavior and the interface of that behavior within a group setting at work. Over the years, two movements have defined organizational behavior: Human Relations Movement and Total Quality Management Movement (TQM).
Human Relations Movement. The Human Relationship Movement, born in the 1930’s, was a result of union-management collective bargaining and managers seeking different ways to approach the employer-employee relationship by focusing on the “human factor.” In the 1960’s, Douglas McGregor expanded the Human Relations Movement further by developing his X and Y Theory of the characteristics of people within an organization. Theory X holds the pessimistic view that the majority of people dislike work, need to be threatened and coerced, prefer to be directed in their work, and avoid responsibility. Theory Y is an optimistic view of people working within an organization. Its premise is that people naturally enjoy work, are self-directed, can be committed if rewarded, and have a spirit of ingenuity. With the Human Relationship Movement, organizations began to view employees through a social, humane lens and started to reshape their organizations accordingly.Total Quality Movement.
The catalyst to Total Quality Movement (TQM), Six Sigma, was developed in 1986 by an engineer at Motorola who was able to get quality measures to a 99.9997% quality target. With rising customer expectations, TQM has become increasingly important within organizations and has four primary principles:Do it right the first time to eliminate costly rework and product recallsNot only listen to but learn from customers and employeesMake continuous improvement an everyday matterBuild teamwork, trust, and mutual respect.
Ethics In Organizational Behavior. Ethics is the study of moral issues and choices. There are multiple challenges in corporate America today that have caused morality lapses. Taking cultural norms and conduct into consideration, ethical lapses in the workplace and intense pressure for early results are the primary reasons for moral dilemmas. Management and the 21st Century Manager. Effective managers exhibit 11 skills: clarifies goals, encourages participation, plans and organizes, has technical and administrative expertise, facilitates work, provides feedback, keeps things moving, controls details, empowers and delegates, and recognizes good performance.
The 21st century manager has evolved from being a despot to fostering a team-centered environment while empowering each member to reach their maximum potential. These managers use a contingency approach, meaning they utilize a situational approach versus a cookie-cutter, one size fits all approach.Chapter 2: Managing DiversityManaging diversity, especially today, is a priority for organizations. Diversity is the multitude of differences and similarities among people. There are four areas today which have implications to diversity: women having difficulty navigating after breaking the glass-ceiling; racial groups hitting the glass-ceiling; a mismatch between educational attainment and occupational requirements; and generational differences in the workplace. It is not enough just to have a diverse workforce, but organizations must also actively practice inclusion of that diverse workforce. This means for diversity to honestly be given a voice, diverse candidates must have the chance to be in upper management and C-suite positions for the organization to have the best opportunity to maximize employee potential and profits. A great example of this is seen in the article What 11 CEO’s Have Learned About Championing Diversity”.
“Starbucks has the goal of increasing the representation of women and minorities in leadership by 50% by 2020 through expanding the leadership pipeline and holding leadership accountable for diversity and inclusion goals.”1 There are also a number of barriers and challenges companies encounter when trying to manage diversity versus just filling quotas. A handful of the most common obstacles are Ethnocentricity, inaccurate stereotypes and prejudice, lack of political savvy on behalf of diverse employees, difficulty balancing career and family, and resistance to change. In order to overcome the barriers to diversity and be viewed as a serious undertaking, the commitment must come from the very top of the organization.Chapter 3: Organizational Cultures, Socialization, and MentoringOrganizational culture, socialization, and mentoring are three foundations that help employees be better equipped to reach their potential.
In regards to organizational culture, there are four types an organization can utilize. Clan Culture has an internal organizational focus and value is placed on flexibility. Communication and empowerment are the cornerstones of clan culture. Ad-hocracy has an external customer focus and value is also placed on flexibility.
Creativity and adaptability define a culture of ad-hocracy. Market Culture has an external focus and value is placed on stability and control. Customer focus and competitiveness define market culture.
Lastly, a Hierarchy Culture focuses internally and also values stability and control. Processes and quality control define a hierarchical culture.One of the areas that companies should have a system for is the socialization of their employees. Successful enterprises utilize the 3-step model to socialization that includes Anticipatory, Encounter, and Change & Acquisition.
An organization following this process would provide Anticipatory socialization by giving the candidate a realistic job preview (RJP), so he or she knows in advance what is expected and can compare it to their occupational preferences. Next, the newly hired candidate would go through an Encounter process of onboarding. Finally, Change & Acquisition occurs when an employee learns to master specific tasks within their role, and they are crystal clear on how their position fits within the organization. International Organizational Behavior: Managing Across CulturesIn our ever-growing global society, it is imperative that organizational behavior is managed across cultures internationally.
Organizations must guard against Ethnocentrism, the belief that their country, organization, or group is superior. It is easy to believe that it is only bigoted individuals who practice ethnocentrism, but enlightened individuals can also quickly fall prey to this attitude because people are naturally used to and more comfortable with their own behavior and culture. A great example of how ethnocentrism can appear to even some of the most culturally sensitive managers and executives can be seen in hiring practices between the United States, Canada, and much of Northern Europe compared to Arabic, African, and Latin American countries. Nepotism is a concept that many in the US, Canada, and Northern Europe try to avoid. For the most part, hiring is based on qualifications of the applicant.
Juxtapose this hiring practice with what is commonplace in Arabic, African, and Latin American countries. In those countries, businesses find it hard to skip over relatives and familial relationships to hire a stranger.2DiscussionUnderstanding organizational behavior and efficiently managing diversity should be a top priority for any organization, whether a small business with a handful of employees to an international conglomerate with tens of thousands, who want to successfully maximize the potential in employees and profits for the organization. These are organizational pillars which must begin at the top but also permeate every layer of management. In an age of technology which allows time to be compressed and teams who can be located in all corners of the globe, the differentiating factor for success moving forward will be an embracing of organizational behavior to create a flourishing, dynamic culture and the ability to manage diversity.ReferencesKeitner, R.
, & Kinicki, A. (2013). Organizational Behavior. 2-118 New York, NY: McGraw- Hill IrwinFootnotes1 Johnson, Stefanie K. “What 11 CEOs Have Learned About Championing Diversity.
” Harvard Business Review, 29 Aug. 2017, hbr.org/2017/08/what-11-ceos-have-learned-about-championing-diversity.2″Cross-Cultural International Communication.” Reference for Business, http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/small/Co-Di/Cross-Cultural-International-Communication.html