1.1 Motivation of Apparel Manufacturing Company
Motivation signifies making good productiveness in houses since it enhances public presentation of employees. Harmonizing to Fulop and Linstead ( 1999, pp.136 ) , motive is “ the internal psychological procedure of initiating, stimulating, directing and keeping purposive behaviour ” . Motivation commenced in the twentieth century holding identified that employees were relaxed and needed near and changeless supervising in order to execute to the outlook. It was identified that when workers are motivated, their public presentation are much better with minimal supervising.
Fulop and Linstead ( 1999, pp.136 ) ascertained that when employees are recognized & A ; rewarded for their public presentation, they become motivated and execute better which contributes a healthy production of an organisation. To originate motive, the undermentioned patterns should be developed: cut down working clip, gyrating rewards, periphery benefits, human dealingss preparation, sensitiveness preparation, communicating sweetening, occupation satisfaction and employee guidance among others ( Herzberg, 2003, pp. 88 – 91 ) . Apparel Manufacturing company has embracings necessary patterns, which motivate its employees, thereby retaining its recognized staff and at the same clip bettering the public presentation of the company.
MAS Linea Aqua ( Pvt ) Lt. ( LA ) is a joint venture between Sri Lanka dress industry MAS keeping group, the universe ‘s prima manufacturer of swimwear Speedo International Ltd. and Brandot International a US based Investment Company. The mill has grown into a province of art fabrication installation that can drive a universe category merchandise. Annual turnover USD 75 million while keeping 3350 work force.
Dedicated client focal point squad with expertness in the countries of development, sourcing, pricing, buying, planning and production will guarantee that all orders are fulfilled to client satisfaction, seen the merchandise from design to bringing. With an extended provider based from Europe through the Far East, the company can offer a broad scope from manner to public presentation monetary value competitory in maintaining with client demands with a province of art to the full air conditioned modular fabrication installation which allows velocity and flexibleness in the procedure. A high base of HR Management is been maintained. The company maintains a rigorous conformity of planetary / ethical criterions.
2.0 Theories of Motivation
Several theories of motive have been put frontward to explicate the content and procedure of motive. Process theories of motive include Adams ‘ equity theory, Expectancy theory and goal-setting theory, while content theories of motive include Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands, theory X and theory Y for McGregor and two-factor theory of Herzberg. Content theories of motive harmonizing to Fulop and Linstead ( 1999, pp. 143 ) suggest internalized and natural forces are responsible for the motive of human behaviour since they are derived from both psychological and biological factors.
2.1 Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow developed Hierarchy of Needs theory from clinical surveillance. The Hierarchy of Needs theoretical account was developed from psychological representation attributed to societal factors impacting mental wellness. Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs theory high spots five chief demands in a hierarch in a command to explicate human behaviour. They include psychological demand, safety and belonging. The psychological demands are the basic demands such as shelter, nutrient and H2O that one needs for endurance. It is argued that such demands can be attained at workplace by agencies of warming, infinite, work and pay. The demands of security and safety are attributed to one ‘s feeling of freedom and security from danger to existence ( Tutor2u, n.d ) .
Such demands should be offered to employees at workplace merely guaranting general security to all by offering services such as occupation security, wellness oversights, and security against onslaught, pensions and insurance strategies. The 3rd demand in the hierarchy after psychological demands and safety is belongingness, which all about love and fondness for others in the organisation, which achieved through teamwork. The 4th degree is esteem demands include demand for self-respect, regard for others and positive image at workplace, which are attained chiefly through public acknowledgment of position of place or work. The last degree in Maslow ‘s hierarch of demands is demand for personal growing, which is gained through development chances and preparation plans.
Figure 1: Maslow ‘s theory of Hierarchy of demands
Beginning: Tutor2u, n.d. Motivation – Theories. [ Online ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //tutor2u.net/business/gcse/people_motivation_theories.htm [ Accessed 2 Jan 2011 ] .
2.2 McGregor ‘s Theory X and Theory Y
McGregor harmonizing to Fulop and Linstead ( 1999, pp. 146 ) criticized theory X, which is the traditional direction patterns based on the undermentioned premise as stated by Fulop and Linstead, “ Peoples have an built-in disfavor of work and will avoid it if they can, most people must be coerced, controlled, directed and threatened with penalty to acquire them to lend equal attempt ” .
The 3rd premise about theory Ten is that averagely human existences prefer being directed, have minimum aspiration, neglect their duty and need security as the first precedence. McGregor asserted that theory Ten does non explicate or depict human nature, which it claims. As a consequence, the theory is perceived to be restricting thereby forestalling people from detecting possibilities that exist in other managerial schemes. The degree of committedness depends on the wagess aimed at run intoing the mentioned aims. Maslow argued that the most of import demands are that of regard, which is intrinsic to work.
2.3 Herzberg ‘s two-factor Theory
Harmonizing to Fulop and Linstead ( 1999, pp. 148 – 149 ) , Herzberg suggest that the factors, which affect committedness do non heighten satisfaction and at the same clip extinguish dissatisfaction. Herzberg reasoned that the factors fall in two chief groups of satisfiers and dissatisfies. He called the satisfier factors the incentives while dissatisfies are the hygiene factors. The incentives relate to occupation and they include occupation satisfaction, accomplishment, promotion and duty, while dissatisfies include factors associating to employee interaction with working environment such as salary, work status among others.
2.4 Adam ‘s Equity Theory
The equity theory of Adams explains that people usually try to accomplish equity every bit good as justness in what he footings societal exchanges. This theory highlights the fact that there exists an employee-employer relationship as the cardinal constituent, where the employee inputs include accomplishments, experience and instruction. The employees expect result or return of their input in footings of wage, acknowledgment and periphery benefits. Fulop and Linstead ( 1999, pp. 150 ) argues that there exist equity when the ratio of results to inputs is the same among workers of the same protocol.
2.5 Expectancy Theory
Expectancy theory explains that the behaviour of people is attributed to the expected results, which can accordingly be used to foretell human behaviour at workplace or any given state of affairs with at least two picks or options. The cardinal constituent of this theory is because people at workplace are rational and they contemplate what to make in order to be rewarded. Vroom argues that perceptual experience of anticipation is affected chiefly by old success at work topographic point, self-efficacy and self-pride. Another of import component to the anticipation theory is instrumentality, which depicts one ‘s belief as instrumental in act uponing public presentation.
2.6 The Goal-setting Theory
Puting a end is a procedure that is employed by several organisations to with an purpose of increasing efficiency every bit good as effectivity by placing intended consequences. The mechanisms of puting end include directing attending on the relevant and of import things, modulating attempt in determining selective attempt and increasing continuity every bit good as furthering action programs and schemes. Goal-setting theory explains that mode of puting ends, self-perception and inducements influence attitudes towards end set.
3.0 Motivation Application in Apparel Manufacturing Company
Apparel Manufacturing Company has achieved since it started runing in the industry since 1981 ( Apparel Manufacturing, n.d. ) . The company enjoys a strong repute of providing unvarying and corporate dress to several industries. Current, Apparel Manufacturing Company is a leader in giving entire solution from design to bringing to their clients. Reasons behind these are competent, good skilled and motivated human resource.
The Company holds its employees with high regard by offering them one of the best services in the industry which include one of the best wage among other benefits such as wellness attention, coach base on ballss, paid clip off, free breakfast, subsidised tiffin, free categories and free bikes among many others. Such services have been proven beyond sensible uncertainty that they motivate employees, which in bend improve their public presentation. Improved employee public presentation consequence into dedicated attempt in the production procedure and functioning the house ‘s clients. Motivation hence by and large motivates employee thereby increasing productiveness and economic return.
3.1 Worker Motivation Strategies in Apparel Manufacturing Company
Authoritative illustration the direction of Linea Aqua is committed to worker motive in assorted positions. The cardinal schemes applied are based on the company ‘s Lean fabrication system attempts. These schemes could be summarized to chief points as shown below.
Job rotary motion: The direction has decided to revolve the occupations making a new acquisition, healthier and actuating environment for workers to run. In definition, occupation rotary motion is the exposure of different specializers in the production procedure to different undertakings meant to hike the single workers knowledge/skills. Through this exercising, the company has been able to expose its workers to different sections, increasing their experience and hiking their morale at work. Indeed, occupation rotary motion has been a certain scheme in the motive of workers in the company.
Job Simplification: From this survey the company has applied occupation simplification scheme in actuating its workers. Through this attack, the production procedure has been divided into simpler undertakings which are easy to transport out. Industrial Engineering Department has been delegated to re-engineer all the activities and develop alternate method through invention. Through this the company has actualized increased productiveness with less attempt either mentally or physically.
Decrease of working hours: Consequences from pattern in the company one of the ways of actuating workers non to striping them of the chance to work. Overtime, the mean worker clip has reduced bit by bit from 10 hours to every bit low as six hours a twenty-four hours. This rule has affected actuating employees to work harder within the fewer clip frames. Therefore, cut downing clip in the work topographic point has a net consequence of promoting workers to work towards higher measures and better qualities in production.
Salary and pay addition: The direction has farther used the pay gyrating attack to actuate its workers. Over the times in its history, the Management has continued to increase wages and rewards of workers. It has been identified that production is depended on wagess. Higher wagess can anticipate higher public presentation frailty versa. In this context the company direction has taken advantage of its workers aims. Their major end being to gain a life, the direction has insinuated a clear progressive wage and pay alteration system. In attempts to seek the following pay and salary degree, workers have kept working harder and better. This has seemingly acted as an inducement towards constructing motive among the workers.
Fringe Benefits: As the universe moves to a new order of public assistance and efficiency, the Apparel Company has non been left behind. Past surveies show that, workers worked to gain a life and to develop a calling. Workers in the past worked in pursuit for income and security. However, recent surveies show different tendencies in the twenty-first century. Today, workers end is to take part in production activities & A ; to achieve societal public assistance and happen personal satisfaction. Workers today are more cognizant of their rights and duties.
For this ground, the company has non lagged in reacting positively to this alteration. The company direction has reduced overtime, increased worker benefits and advantages such as medical screen and other allowances. They besides include regular paid holidaies for outstanding workers. The workers in this company sees and recognize that their direction is up to day of the month and meant for their public assistance. In this sense, the company workers are motivated.
Forces preparation: The company direction is applaudable for its value in employee preparation. As the aims of employees are switching towards complacency in the work topographic point among other aims, the direction has non lagged in guaranting that its workers are precedence in preparation. The company sponsored a figure of its employees to career oriented classs, partially for single development and overall for the improvement of the company with respects to worker motive issues. When workers are provided with more of professional competency through preparation and instruction plans, they are encouraged to work on towards better quality and increased production.
3.2 Job Enlargement, enrichment & A ; enhancement through Job design:
Linea Aqua uses its occupation rating mechanism to put employees on different wage sets, and the beginning papers used in the procedure of occupation rating is the Job Description. Based on the JD a cross functional squad would measure whether the size of the occupation is expanded, whether the occupation requires in depth thought or whether the complexness of the occupation due to believing challenge has increased.
This surely adds value to the occupation applicant doing him understand the development, the function that is supposed to be played, lucidity through concatenation of bid, the accomplishments that needs to be acquired or developed in order to run into his or her marks, and cognizing the constructions which motivates them towards calling patterned advance which is normally known as sequence. Specially when we consider the executive bed and above unlike the worker and staff class they are much more sensitive to achievement and acknowledgment or achieving self esteem and realization demands as depicted on the higher beds of the Need Hierarchy.
3.3 Reward & A ; Recognition through Performance Appraisals:
Not many organisations pattern proper methodological analysiss of assessments, which are straight linked to honor and acknowledgment. As a consequence employees complain about non giving a just hearing to their justifications, playing front-runners in the organisation and the work Equus caballus being the work Equus caballus everlastingly. In order to avoid the subjectiveness of wages and acknowledgment LA uses a systematic wages strategy linked to public presentation. This has helped the organisation to maintain its employees motivated and to acquire away with de-motivation which is created and fed through subjective determinations made in the absence of a comprehensive assessment system.
3.4 Empowering Employees at different degrees through different schemes:
LA has two sets of employee classs that need to be kept motivated. These two subsets vary chiefly due to their degree of instruction. Hence authorising these subsets to maintain them motivated is addressed in conformity to their degree of demands. For illustration the lowest bed known as the Worker class which constitutes 90 % of females – the Machine Operators are empowered to elate their life demands through the Women Go Beyond Program. This plan is specially designed for adult females enabling them to spread out their skylines in order to construct up their households and life manners. This is given to them in the signifier of advice, legal instruction, instilling entrepreneurship qualities and acknowledging them as leaders of the society.
Executives or employees with an educational background are empowered through the learning civilization that the organisation has created for them. The beginning tool used is a shared point where persons portion their acquisition, positions about subjects that involvement them which besides adds value to their lives. Further the organisation encourages larning and development for persons and invests the accomplishments of the employees to the concern. The cognition and accomplishments absorbed through these programmes are so once more captured through the accomplishment matrix which visualizes the person ‘s cognition base after developing. Employees are recognized and based on their appraisal consequences are segregated as a separate pool. This pool will be given precedence for Training & A ; Development every bit good as for Sequence. Through all these schemes the organisation has attempted to make motive through self-actualization demands.
3.5 Worker Commitment to Jobs in Linea Aqua.
Overall, there are common characteristics to motive, but what motivates one individual instead than another is capable to infinite fluctuation. Harmonizing to research, life experience, age, physical and psychological makeup will be important variables, but will gender, race and ethnicity. Peoples may be motivated otherwise at different times and in different contexts. In add-on, emotion is an of import and ignored portion of work life, and theories of motive have tended to see motive as a kind of concretion instead than a signifier of inspiration. In the Company, both attacks have something to offer, but the drawn-out disregard of the emotional impact on motive agencies that we still have much to larn about it. It is clear that motive is really complex.
The old carrot and stick theoretical account, which oscillate between graft and intimidation, has been superseded. Although simple additive relationships between what a director does and how a worker responds, has been discredited, there is still no deficit of attempt to better workplace motive. In this apprehension, the company has conducted several researches to assist better worker committedness in the work topographic point.
The occupation design has been found to be really of import since they have proved that so, committedness motivates employees. A occupation good designed has great influence in the attitude and perceptual experience of workers. It has been established that in the modern-day society that trust, committedness and emotional labour are important factors, which contribute to public presentation.
3.6 Strategies to hiking worker motive
There are assorted schemes that the company has taken to hike its worker motive. These are in line with the theories of motive in an organisational scene and are as discussed earlier. Several theories of motive have been put frontward to explicate the content and procedure of motive. Process theories of motive include Adams ‘ equity theory, Expectancy theory and goal-setting theory, while content theories of motive include Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands, theory X and theory Y for McGregor and two-factor theory of Herzberg. Content theories of motive harmonizing to Fulop and Linstead ( 1999, pp. 143 ) suggest internalized and natural forces are responsible for the motive of human behaviour since they are derived from both psychological and biological factors. These have been discussed earlier in the paper and in the same manner, have been applied in the company.
Harmonizing to goal-setting theory of motive for case, attitudes and ends of employees towards the ends of organisation is influenced by inducements, self-perception and the manner the ends are set. Linea Aqua has taken necessary safeguard by developing the employees to better their self-perception through preparation plans of the company. The company besides offers several inducements in footings of benefits refering rewards, insurance strategies, pension, subsidised conveyance, and tiffins among many others. Expectancy theory, which asserts that employees are motivated when they know that they will derive benefits that, is relative to the attempt the offer in occupation public presentation.
For case, the company offers the intrinsic ( intangibles ) and extrinsic ( touchable ) rewards the theory propagates to its employees. The extrinsic wages the company offers to its employees include good wage, wellness attention, free conveyance and tiffin, insurance strategies and parking among others. The intrinsic wagess are the recognitions of the employees ‘ public presentation, which enable them, develop a sense of accomplishment and achievement.
3.7 Assessing Worker Motivation Levels
One of the ways in measuring worker motive degrees is through work public presentation trials. The Company has developed strategic mileposts for carry oning public presentation trials both per single workers and jointly in subdivisions or sections. Through the cardinal public presentation consequences ( KPI ) , the company direction is able to analyse and associate the consequences to the overall prevailing company environment. Then they are able to state whether an person or section is either bettering or dropping. In this manner, it is possible to state whether workers are motivated or discouraged.
Motivation of employees is a really of import constituent of direction in an organisation. Motivated employees have been found to execute better thereby increasing productiveness of the company and organisation. Several incentives have been formulated and applied in different houses. However, incentives that have been found to be effectual on long-run footing are those that aim to alter the attitudes and behaviours of employees. One of the major agencies of actuating employees that Herzberg propagates is occupation enrichment, which he argues that when a occupation is made interesting at the disbursal of organisations, employees are bound to wish the occupation and will experience motivated most of the clip.
However, much as the theories of motive may sound successful, they are more complicated in pattern. Linea Aqua has proved this and has provided several grounds worth organizing a review of the theories. For case, the theories discussed above merely touch on specific issues in the workers esteem in the work topographic point. For case, Herzberg ‘s two factor theory merely touches on the facet of satisfaction and dissatisfaction of the worker. It does non admit the topographic point of company demands which may at times mismatch the workers involvements. In the same manner, other theories have their restrictions and hence, this paper is justified to certify that the theories of motive in the work topographic point are merely partially dependable and hence limited. However, it has been said over and over once more these it is better half a loaf than no loaf at all and so, the company has chosen to continue these theories as discussed below.
Many psychologists, sociologists and philosophers have developed several theories on both the content and procedure of motive. The theories include Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands, McGregor ‘s Theory X and Theory Y, Herzberg ‘s two-factor Theory, Adam ‘s Equity Theory, Expectancy Theory and Goal-setting Theory. Maslow ‘s theory of hierarch of demands is for case rather sensible and applicable. Maslow enlisted the demands of employee which ranged from psychological demands to safety and security demands. He enlisted esteem/personal growing demands as good. It is right that employees will non pay attending or dressed ore in their work if they do non hold the psychological demands.
Therefore it ‘s of import that employees look into the public assistance of employees by guaranting that they have entree to low-cost endurance demands by offering them sensible wage that enable them to run into such demands. Such demands should be monitored closely by the safety and security demands to guarantee safety of employees. Employees should be cared & amp ; respected, made to experience of import to the organisation in order to transfuse the sense of belongingness. As the company values its workers good rewards and preparation plans are offered, which enables the employees to get all the demands in the Maslow ‘s hierarchy.
Herzberg ‘s two-factor theory of satisfiers and dissatisfies enhances occupation satisfaction through the agencies of incentives and eliminates occupation dissatisfaction by the agencies of hygiene factor. This is important because occupation satisfaction does non needfully intend absence of occupation dissatisfaction. Adams ‘ equity theory is besides rather logical in the sense that it tries to extinguish unfairness in organisation, which can be a great hindrance to public presentation every bit good as productiveness. Apparel enhances occupation satisfaction by offering rewards on equal footing depending on the attempt of employees. All the theories of motive are important in altering the attitudes and behaviours of employee which in bend translate to increased public presentation and productiveness.